- BCR and its mutants, the reciprocal t(9;22)-associated ABL/BCR fusion proteins, differentially regulate the cytoskeleton and cell motility (2006)
- Background The reciprocal (9;22) translocation fuses the bcr (breakpoint cluster region) gene on chromosome 22 to the abl (Abelson-leukemia-virus) gene on chromosome 9. Depending on the breakpoint on chromosome 22 (the Philadelphia chromosome – Ph+) the derivative 9+ encodes either the p40(ABL/BCR) fusion transcript, detectable in about 65% patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukemia, or the p96(ABL/BCR) fusion transcript, detectable in 100% of Ph+ acute lymphatic leukemia patients. The ABL/BCRs are N-terminally truncated BCR mutants. The fact that BCR contains Rho-GEF and Rac-GAP functions strongly suggest an important role in cytoskeleton modeling by regulating the activity of Rho-like GTPases, such as Rho, Rac and cdc42. We, therefore, compared the function of the ABL/BCR proteins with that of wild-type BCR. Methods We investigated the effects of BCR and ABL/BCRs i.) on the activation status of Rho, Rac and cdc42 in GTPase-activation assays; ii.) on the actin cytoskeleton by direct immunofluorescence; and iii) on cell motility by studying migration into a three-dimensional stroma spheroid model, adhesion on an endothelial cell layer under shear stress in a flow chamber model, and chemotaxis and endothelial transmigration in a transwell model with an SDF-1α gradient. Results Here we show that both ABL/BCRs lost fundamental functional features of BCR regarding the regulation of small Rho-like GTPases with negative consequences on cell motility, in particular on the capacity to adhere to endothelial cells. Conclusion Our data presented here describe for the first time an analysis of the biological function of the reciprocal t(9;22) ABL/BCR fusion proteins in comparison to their physiological counterpart BCR.
- Reciprocal t(9;22) ABL/BCR fusion proteins: leukemogenic potential and effects on B cell commitment (2009)
- Background: t(9;22) is a balanced translocation, and the chromosome 22 breakpoints (Philadelphia chromosome – Ph+) determine formation of different fusion genes that are associated with either Ph+ acute lymphatic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) or chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The "minor" breakpoint in Ph+ ALL encodes p185BCR/ABL from der22 and p96ABL/BCR from der9. The "major" breakpoint in CML encodes p210BCR/ABL and p40ABL/BCR. Herein, we investigated the leukemogenic potential of the der9-associated p96ABL/BCR and p40ABL/BCR fusion proteins and their roles in the lineage commitment of hematopoietic stem cells in comparison to BCR/ABL. Methodology: All t(9;22) derived proteins were retrovirally expressed in murine hematopoietic stem cells (SL cells) and human umbilical cord blood cells (UCBC). Stem cell potential was determined by replating efficiency, colony forming - spleen and competitive repopulating assays. The leukemic potential of the ABL/BCR fusion proteins was assessed by in a transduction/transplantation model. Effects on the lineage commitment and differentiation were investigated by culturing the cells under conditions driving either myeloid or lymphoid commitment. Expression of key factors of the B-cell differentiation and components of the preB-cell receptor were determined by qRT-PCR. Principal Findings: Both p96ABL/BCR and p40ABL/BCR increased proliferation of early progenitors and the short term stem cell capacity of SL-cells and exhibited own leukemogenic potential. Interestingly, BCR/ABL gave origin exclusively to a myeloid phenotype independently from the culture conditions whereas p96ABL/BCR and to a minor extent p40ABL/BCR forced the B-cell commitment of SL-cells and UCBC. Conclusions/Significance: Our here presented data establish the reciprocal ABL/BCR fusion proteins as second oncogenes encoded by the t(9;22) in addition to BCR/ABL and suggest that ABL/BCR contribute to the determination of the leukemic phenotype through their influence on the lineage commitment.
- Role of enhanced stem cell capacities in leukemogenesis (2006)
- Unlimited self-renewal is an absolute prerequisite for any malignancy, and is the ultimate arbiter of the continuous growth and metastasis of tumors. It has been suggested that the self-renewal properties of a tumor are exclusively contained within a small population, i.e., the so-called cancer stem cells. Enhanced self-renewal potential plays a pivotal role in the development of leukemia. My data have shown that APL associated translocation products PML/RARalpha and PLZF/RARalpha increased the replating efficiency of mouse lin-/Sca1+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). This effect is partly mediated by induction of gamma–catenin which is an important mediator of the Wnt signaling pathway and has been shown to be up regulated by the AML associated translocation products(AATPs). Suppression of gamma–catenin by siRNA can abrogate the increased replating efficiency induced by AATPs. Transduction of gamma–catenin in lin-/Sca1+ HSCs led to increased replating efficiency and the expression of stem cell markers Sca1 and c-kit. Additionally it induced accelerated cell cycle progression of mouse bone marrow HSCs. Transduction/transplantation mouse models have shown that ectopic expression of gamma–catenin in HSCs led to acute myeloid leukemia without maturation. These data suggest important roles of Wnt signaling pathway in the leukemogenesis induced by PML/RARalpha, PLZF/RARalpha and AML1/ETO. In contrast to AATPs, CML and Ph+-ALL associated translocation products p185(BCR-ABL) and p210(BCR-ABL) did not affect the self-renewal potential of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. However my studies indicated that their reciprocal translocation products p40(ABL/BCR) and p96(ABL/BCR) actually increased the replating efficiency of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. The effect is stronger when induced by p96(ABL/BCR) than by p40(ABL/BCR). It is very intriguing that p96(ABL/BCR) can activate Wnt signaling and up regulate the expression of HoxB4. Transduction/transplantation mouse model has shown that p40(ABL/BCR) and p96(ABL/BCR) both have their own leukemogenic potential. Given the fact that leukemic stem cells maintain the growth of tumor and are the origin of relapse, the cure of leukemia is dependent on the eradication of the leukemic stem cell and abrogation of aberrantly regulated self-renewal capability. Both t-RA and As2O3 have been shown to induce complete remission in APL patients with PML/RARalpha translocation product. However, t-RA as a single agent achieves completeremission (CR) but not complete molecular remissions (CMR). Therefore, virtually all patients will experience a relapse within a few months. In contrast to t-RA, As2O3 as a single agent is able to induce CR as well as CMR followed by long-term relapse-free survival in about 50% of APL patients even if relapsed after treatment with t-RA-containing chemotherapy regimens. Nothing is known about the mechanisms leading to the complete different clinical outcomes by the two compounds although both have been shown to induce differentiation of blast cells, proliferation arrest, induction of apoptosis and degradation of PML/RARalpha. We investigated the effect of t-RA and arsenic on PML/RARalpha-expressing cell population with stem cell capacity derived from the APL cell line NB4 as well as Sca1+/lin- murine bone marrow cells. We found that t-RA did not reduce the replating efficiency in PML/RARalpha- and PLZF/RARalpha-infected Sca1+/lincells whereas it selected small compact colonies representing very early progenitor cells. T-RA was unable to reduce the capacity to form colony forming units-spleen (CFU-S) of Sca1+/lin-cells expressing PML/RARalpha, additionally t-RA did not impair the capability of engraftment of NB4 cells in NOD/SCID mouse. On the contrary to t-RA, As2O3 abolished the aberrant self-renewal potential of Sca1+/lin- cells expressing PML/RARalpha. As2O3 not only abolished the replating efficiency of PML/RARalpha positive cells but also completely abrogated the ability of PML/RARalpha-positive HSC to produce CFU-S in vivo. On the contrary to As2O3, t-RA increased the absolute cell number and the percentage of cells in the side population with respect to the whole cell population in NB4 cells. Taken together these data suggest that arsenic but not all-trans retinoic acid overcomes the aberrant stem cell capacity of PML/RARalpha positive leukemic stem cells. My data prove for the first time that there is a direct relationship between the capacity of compounds to effectively target the LSC and their capacity to eradicate the leukemia, and, thereby, to induce complete molecular remission and long-term relapse-free survival. Thus, in order to increase the curative potential of leukemia therapies, future studies need to include the effect of given compounds on the stem cell compartment to determine their ability to eradicate the LSC.