- NMR Solution Structure of a Chymotrypsin Inhibitor from the Taiwan Cobra Naja naja atra (2013)
- The Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) chymotrypsin inhibitor (NACI) consists of 57 amino acids and is related to other Kunitz-type inhibitors such as bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) and Bungarus fasciatus fraction IX (BF9), another chymotrypsin inhibitor. Here we present the solution structure of NACI. We determined the NMR structure of NACI with a root-mean-square deviation of 0.37 Å for the backbone atoms and 0.73 Å for the heavy atoms on the basis of 1,075 upper distance limits derived from NOE peaks measured in its NOESY spectra. To investigate the structural characteristics of NACI, we compared the three-dimensional structure of NACI with BPTI and BF9. The structure of the NACI protein comprises one 310-helix, one α-helix and one double-stranded antiparallel β-sheet, which is comparable with the secondary structures in BPTI and BF9. The RMSD value between the mean structures is 1.09 Å between NACI and BPTI and 1.27 Å between NACI and BF9. In addition to similar secondary and tertiary structure, NACI might possess similar types of protein conformational fluctuations as reported in BPTI, such as Cys14–Cys38 disulfide bond isomerization, based on line broadening of resonances from residues which are mainly confined to a region around the Cys14–Cys38 disulfide bond.
- Solution structure of the 30 kDa homodimeric sud protein from Wolinella succinogenes (2003)
- Periplasmic Sud protein encoded by the Wolinella succinogenes catalyses the transfer of bound polysulfide-sulfur to the active site of the membrane bound polysulfide reductase. The homodimeric protein consists of 131 residues per monomer, each with one cysteine residue in the active site. Polysulfide-sulfur is covalently bound to the catalytic Cys residues of the Sud protein. In order to understand the structure-function relationship of this protein, the features of its solution structure determined by heteronuclear multidimensional NMR techniques are reported here. The first step of structure determination leads to resonance assignments using 15N/13C/2H- and 15N/13C-labeled protein. The sequential backbone and side chain resonance assignments have been successfully completed. Structure calculations were carried out using the ARIA program package. The structure is based on 2688 NOE-derived distance restraints, 68 backbone hydrogen bond restraints derived from 34 slow-exchanging backbone amide protons and 334 torsion angle restraints obtained from the TALOS program as well as 158 residual dipolar coupling restraints for the refinement of relative vector orientations. The three-dimensional structure of the Sud protein was determined with an averaged rootmean- square deviation of 0.72 Å and 1.28 Å for the backbone and heavy atoms, respectively, excluding the terminal residues. Without the poorly defined segment between residues 90-94 the average r.m.s.d. value drops down to 0.6 Å and 1.14 Å. The ensemble refined with residual dipolar coupling (rdc) restraints shows good convergence. The r.m.s.d. value for the backbone heavy atoms, excluding residues 90- 94, drops down from 0.97 to 0.66 for the rdc-refined ensemble. The relative orientation of the two monomers in the protein structures refined with residual dipolar coupling restraints are also different from those without residual dipolar coupling restraints. The structure determination of the dimeric protein has been hampered by the high molecular mass (30 kDa), severe peak degeneracy, and by the small number of experimental intermonomer NOEs (relative orientation problem of two monomers). For the resonance assignments of aliphatic side chain, many resonances were ambiguously assigned because of severe overlap of signals. The Sud dimer protein contains 17 Lys, 14 Leu and one His tag for each monomer. It complicated the resonance assignments. The conventional 3D 15N-separated TOCSY HSQC experiment failed because of the large molecular weight which results in line broadening and hence made the resonance assignments of side chains more difficult. The determined structure contains a five-stranded parallel ß-sheet enclosing a hydrophobic core, a two-stranded anti-parallel ß-sheet and seven a-helices. The dimer structure is stabilized predominantly by hydrophobic residues. Sud catalyses the transfer of the polysulfide-sulfur to cyanide, similar to rhodanese encoded by Azotobacter vinelandii (Bordo et al., 2000). The two proteins are similar in the active site environment primarily owing to the main-chain conformation of the active-site loop with the cysteine residue and with respect to the surrounding positively charged residues. The active-site loop (residues 89-95) in the Sud protein appears to be flexible, reflected by few assigned proton resonances of residues 90-94 in the active site. Despite their similarity in function and their similar structure in active site, the amino acid sequences and the folds of the two proteins are remarkably different. The negatively charged polysulfide interacts with positively charged R46, R67, and R94 and hence may be stabilized in structure. The mutation of one of the three arginines that are also conserved in rhodanese from A. vinelandii leads to a loss of sulfur-transfer activity. The polysulfide chain extends from inside of Sud protein to outside, where Sud may form contacts with polysulfide reductase. These contacts provide the possible polysulfide-sulfur transfer from Sud protein to the active site of polysulfide reductase.