- English (49) (remove)
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- GEANT4 : a simulation toolkit (2003)
- Abstract Geant4 is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles through matter. It includes a complete range of functionality including tracking, geometry, physics models and hits. The physics processes offered cover a comprehensive range, including electromagnetic, hadronic and optical processes, a large set of long-lived particles, materials and elements, over a wide energy range starting, in some cases, from 250 eV and extending in others to the TeV energy range. It has been designed and constructed to expose the physics models utilised, to handle complex geometries, and to enable its easy adaptation for optimal use in different sets of applications. The toolkit is the result of a worldwide collaboration of physicists and software engineers. It has been created exploiting software engineering and object-oriented technology and implemented in the C++ programming language. It has been used in applications in particle physics, nuclear physics, accelerator design, space engineering and medical physics. PACS: 07.05.Tp; 13; 23
- Azimuthal anisotropy in Au+Au collisions at SNN=200GeV (2005)
- The results from the STAR Collaboration on directed flow (v1), elliptic flow (v2), and the fourth harmonic (v4) in the anisotropic azimuthal distribution of particles from Au+Au collisions at sqrt[sNN]=200GeV are summarized and compared with results from other experiments and theoretical models. Results for identified particles are presented and fit with a blast-wave model. Different anisotropic flow analysis methods are compared and nonflow effects are extracted from the data. For v2, scaling with the number of constituent quarks and parton coalescence are discussed. For v4, scaling with v22 and quark coalescence are discussed.
- Erratum: Midrapidity antiproton-to-proton ratio from Au+Au collisions at sqrt[sNN]=130 GeV [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4778 (2001)] (2003)
- Evidence for an exotic S=-2, Q=-2 baryon resonance in proton-proton collisions at the CERN SPS (2004)
- Results of resonance searches in the Xi - pi -, Xi - pi +, Xi -bar+ pi -, and Xi -bar+ pi + invariant mass spectra in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=17.2 GeV are presented. Evidence is shown for the existence of a narrow Xi - pi - baryon resonance with mass of 1.862±0.002 GeV/c2 and width below the detector resolution of about 0.018 GeV/c2. The significance is estimated to be above 4.2 sigma . This state is a candidate for the hypothetical exotic Xi --3/2 baryon with S=-2, I=3 / 2, and a quark content of (dsdsu-bar). At the same mass, a peak is observed in the Xi - pi + spectrum which is a candidate for the Xi 03/2 member of this isospin quartet with a quark content of (dsusd-bar). The corresponding antibaryon spectra also show enhancements at the same invariant mass.
- Event-wise <pt> fluctuations in Au-Au collisions at sqrt[sNN]=130 GeV (2005)
- We present the first large-acceptance measurement of event-wise mean transverse momentum <pt> fluctuations for Au-Au collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-momentum collision energy sqrt[sNN] = 130 GeV. The observed nonstatistical <pt> fluctuations substantially exceed in magnitude fluctuations expected from the finite number of particles produced in a typical collision. The r.m.s. fractional width excess of the event-wise <pt> distribution is 13.7±0.1(stat) ±1.3(syst)% relative to a statistical reference, for the 15% most-central collisions and for charged hadrons within pseudorapidity range | eta |<1,2 pi azimuth, and 0.15 <= pt <= 2 GeV/c. The width excess varies smoothly but nonmonotonically with collision centrality and does not display rapid changes with centrality which might indicate the presence of critical fluctuations. The reported <pt> fluctuation excess is qualitatively larger than those observed at lower energies and differs markedly from theoretical expectations. Contributions to <pt> fluctuations from semihard parton scattering in the initial state and dissipation in the bulk colored medium are discussed.
- Open charm yields in d+Au collisions at sqrt[sNN]=200 GeV (2005)
- Midrapidity open charm spectra from direct reconstruction of D0(D0-bar)-->K± pi ± in d+Au collisions and indirect electron-positron measurements via charm semileptonic decays in p+p and d+Au collisions at sqrt[sNN]=200 GeV are reported. The D0(D0-bar) spectrum covers a transverse momentum (pT) range of 0.1<pT<3 GeV/c, whereas the electron spectra cover a range of 1<pT<4 GeV/c. The electron spectra show approximate binary collision scaling between p+p and d+Au collisions. From these two independent analyses, the differential cross section per nucleon-nucleon binary interaction at midrapidity for open charm production from d+Au collisions at BNL RHIC is d sigma NNcc-bar/dy=0.30±0.04(stat)±0.09(syst) mb. The results are compared to theoretical calculations. Implications for charmonium results in A+A collisions are discussed.
- Azimuthal anisotropy and correlations at large transverse momenta in p+p and Au+Au collisions at sqrt[sNN] = 200 GeV (2004)
- Results on high transverse momentum charged particle emission with respect to the reaction plane are presented for Au+Au collisions at sqrt[sNN]=200 GeV. Two- and four-particle correlations results are presented as well as a comparison of azimuthal correlations in Au+Au collisions to those in p+p at the same energy. The elliptic anisotropy v2 is found to reach its maximum at pt~3 GeV/c, then decrease slowly and remain significant up to pt ~ 7-10 GeV/c. Stronger suppression is found in the back-to-back high-pt particle correlations for particles emitted out of plane compared to those emitted in plane. The centrality dependence of v2 at intermediate pt is compared to simple models based on jet quenching.
- Transverse-momentum dependent modification of dynamic texture in central Au+Au collisions at sqrt[sNN]=200GeV (2005)
- Correlations in the hadron distributions produced in relativistic Au+Au collisions are studied in the discrete wavelet expansion method. The analysis is performed in the space of pseudorapidity (| eta | <= 1) and azimuth(full 2 pi ) in bins of transverse momentum (pt) from 0.14 <= pt <= 2.1GeV/c. In peripheral Au+Au collisions a correlation structure ascribed to minijet fragmentation is observed. It evolves with collision centrality and pt in a way not seen before, which suggests strong dissipation of minijet fragmentation in the longitudinally expanding medium.
- Pion interferometry in Au+Au collisions at sqrt[sNN]=200GeV (2005)
- We present a systematic analysis of two-pion interferometry in Au+Au collisions at sqrt[sNN]=200GeV using the STAR detector at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We extract the Hanbury-Brown and Twiss radii and study their multiplicity, transverse momentum, and azimuthal angle dependence. The Gaussianness of the correlation function is studied. Estimates of the geometrical and dynamical structure of the freeze-out source are extracted by fits with blast-wave parametrizations. The expansion of the source and its relation with the initial energy density distribution is studied.
- K(892)* resonance production in Au+Au and p+p collisions at sqrt[sNN]=200GeV (2005)
- The short-lived K(892)* resonance provides an efficient tool to probe properties of the hot and dense medium produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We report measurements of K* in sqrt[sNN]=200GeV Au+Au and p+p collisions reconstructed via its hadronic decay channels K(892)*0-->K pi and K(892)*±-->K0S pi ± using the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The K*0 mass has been studied as a function of pT in minimum bias p+p and central Au+Au collisions. The K*pT spectra for minimum bias p+p interactions and for Au+Au collisions in different centralities are presented. The K*/K yield ratios for all centralities in Au+Au collisions are found to be significantly lower than the ratio in minimum bias p+p collisions, indicating the importance of hadronic interactions between chemical and kinetic freeze-outs. A significant nonzero K*0 elliptic flow (v2) is observed in Au+Au collisions and is compared to the K0S and Lambda v2. The nuclear modification factor of K* at intermediate pT is similar to that of K0S but different from Lambda . This establishes a baryon-meson effect over a mass effect in the particle production at intermediate pT (2<pT <= 4GeV/c).