- Therapy of hemorrhagic shock with following resuscitation-induced liver injury : in vivo study (2010)
- Shock resulting from life-threatening blood-loss (hemorrhagic shock) represents the most frequent injury pattern after a traumatic insult. Hemorrhagic shock induces inflammatory changes, characterized by highly complex pathophysiological pathways often resulting in death. In this study, we establish an experimental in vivo model of H/R in rats and study the mechanisms which determine the hepatic injury after H/R. Furthermore, we show that hemorrhagic shock with following resuscitation is accompanied with release of systemic and local pro-inflammatory mediators, increased infiltration of hepatic neutrophils in the liver, increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, enhanced cell death of both types, apoptosis and necrosis, conspicuous cytoskeletal rearrangements, loss of hepatic integrity and finally high general mortality rates, up to 80%. In addition, the effects of two potential therapeutic interventions to prevent the H/R induced liver injury are explored in a model of H/R in rats. First, the role of JNK and its inhibition by D-JNKI-1 in preservation of hepatic integrity following H/R was analyzed. Second, we investigated the potential of simvastatin to prevent the disturbed inflammatory response and hepatic injury after H/R. The effects of both therapeutic interventions were studied by looking at several inflammatory parameters, markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress, cytoskeleton integrity, microcirculatory parameters, underlying signaling cascades, liver damage and mortality. Highly specific blockade of JNK with the potent, inhibitory peptide D-JNKI-1 revealed the crucial role of the JNK signaling pathway in the H/R induced pathophysiology and strong protective effects of DJNKI- 1 in H/R induced liver injury, when the peptide was applied before and even after hemorrhagic shock. The other therapeutic intervention tested in this study was the use of simvastatin which also revealed protective effects after H/R and even a remarkable improvement in survival after H/R. We show that H/R induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hepatic PMNL infiltration, increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, apoptosis and necrosis can be diminished by treatment with D-JNKI-1 but also with simvastatin in vivo. Furthermore, simvastatin reduces H/R induced cytoskelatal rearrangements, loss of liver integrity and the mortality rate after H/R. The key pathway which underlies these beneficial effects of simvastatin is the Rho kinase pathway. Identification of both mechanisms as well as the effectiveness of both substances provide new insights in the close interaction between hypoxia and the immune system and present a promising basis for the anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective treatment after H/R.
- Mycophenolate mofetil modulates adhesion receptors of the beta I integrin family on tumor cells: impact on tumor recurrence and malignancy (2005)
- Background: Tumor development remains one of the major obstacles following organ transplantation. Immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus directly contribute to enhanced malignancy, whereas the influence of the novel compound mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on tumor cell dissemination has not been explored. We therefore investigated the adhesion capacity of colon, pancreas, prostate and kidney carcinoma cell lines to endothelium, as well as their beta1 integrin expression profile before and after MMF treatment. Methods: Tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cell monolayers was evaluated in the presence of 0.1 and 1 μM MMF and compared to unstimulated controls. beta1 integrin analysis included alpha1beta1 (CD49a), alpha2beta1 (CD49b), alpha3beta1 (CD49c), alpha4beta1 (CD49d), alpha5beta1 (CD49e), and alpha6beta1 (CD49f) receptors, and was carried out by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Results: Adhesion of the colon carcinoma cell line HT-29 was strongly reduced in the presence of 0.1 μM MMF. This effect was accompanied by down-regulation of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 surface expression and of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 coding mRNA. Adhesion of the prostate tumor cell line DU-145 was blocked dose-dependently by MMF. In contrast to MMF's effects on HT-29 cells, MMF dose-dependently up-regulated alpha1beta1, alpha2beta1, alpha3beta1, and alpha5beta1 on DU-145 tumor cell membranes. Conclusion: We conclude that MMF possesses distinct anti-tumoral properties, particularly in colon and prostate carcinoma cells. Adhesion blockage of HT-29 cells was due to the loss of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 surface expression, which might contribute to a reduced invasive behaviour of this tumor entity. The enhancement of integrin beta1 subtypes observed in DU-145 cells possibly causes re-differentiation towards a low-invasive phenotype.
- Rapid development of intestinal cell damage following severe trauma : a prospective observational cohort study (2009)
- Introduction Loss of intestinal integrity has been implicated as an important contributor to the development of excessive inflammation following severe trauma. Thus far, clinical data concerning the occurrence and significance of intestinal damage after trauma remain scarce. This study investigates whether early intestinal epithelial cell damage occurs in trauma patients and, if present, whether such cell injury is related to shock, injury severity and the subsequent inflammatory response. Methods Prospective observational cohort study in 96 adult trauma patients. Upon arrival at the emergency room (ER) plasma levels of intestinal fatty acid binding protein (i-FABP), a specific marker for damage of differentiated enterocytes, were measured. Factors that potentially influence the development of intestinal cell damage after trauma were determined, including the presence of shock and the extent of abdominal trauma and general injury severity. Furthermore, early plasma levels of i-FABP were related to inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results Upon arrival at the ER, plasma i-FABP levels were increased compared with healthy volunteers, especially in the presence of shock (P < 0.01). The elevation of i-FABP was related to the extent of abdominal trauma as well as general injury severity (P < 0.05). Circulatory i-FABP concentrations at ER correlated positively with IL-6 and PCT levels at the first day (r2 = 0.19; P < 0.01 and r2 = 0.36; P < 0.001 respectively) and CRP concentrations at the second day after trauma (r2 = 0.25; P < 0.01). Conclusions This study reveals early presence of intestinal epithelial cell damage in trauma patients. The extent of intestinal damage is associated with the presence of shock and injury severity. Early intestinal damage precedes and is related to the subsequent developing inflammatory response.
- Transient down-regulation of beta1 integrin subtypes on kidney carcinoma cells is induced by mechanical contact with endothelial cell membranes (2007)
- Adhesion molecules of the integrin beta1 family are thought to be involved in the malignant progression renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Still, it is not clear how they contribute to this process. Since the hematogenous phase of tumour dissemination is the rate-limiting step in the metastatic process, we explored beta1 integrin alterations on several RCC cell lines (A498, Caki1, KTC26) before and after contacting vascular endothelium in a tumour-endothelium (HUVEC) co-culture assay. Notably, alpha2, alpha3 and alpha5 integrins became down-regulated immediately after the tumour cells attached to HUVEC, followed by re-expression shortly thereafter. Integrin down-regulation on RCC cells was caused by direct contact with endothelial cells, since the isolated endothelial membrane fragments but not the cell culture supernatant contributed to the observed effects. Integrin loss was accompanied by a reduced focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression, FAK activity and diminished binding of tumour cells to matrix proteins. Furthermore, intracellular signalling proteins RCC cells were altered in the presence of HUVEC membrane fragments, in particular 14-3-3 epsilon, ERK2, PKCdelta, PKCepsilon and RACK1, which are involved in regulating tumour cell motility. We, therefore, speculate that contact of RCC cells with the vascular endothelium converts integrin-dependent adhesion to integrin-independent cell movement. The process of dynamic integrin regulation may be an important part in tumour cell migration strategy, switching the cells from being adhesive to becoming motile and invasive.
- Acute ethanol gavage attenuates hemorrhage/resuscitation-induced hepatic oxidative stress in rats (2012)
- Acute ethanol intoxication increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hemorrhagic shock with subsequent resuscitation (H/R) also induces ROS resulting in cellular and hepatic damage in vivo. We examined the role of acute ethanol intoxication upon oxidative stress and subsequent hepatic cell death after H/R. 14 h before H/R, rats were gavaged with single dose of ethanol or saline (5 g/kg, EtOH and ctrl; H/R_EtOH or H/R_ctrl, resp.). Then, rats were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial blood pressure of 30 ± 2 mmHg for 60 min and resuscitated. Two control groups underwent surgical procedures without H/R (sham_ctrl and sham_EtOH, resp.). Liver tissues were harvested at 2, 24, and 72 h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage induced histological picture of acute fatty liver. Hepatic oxidative (4-hydroxynonenal, 4-HNE) and nitrosative (3-nitrotyrosine, 3-NT) stress were significantly reduced in EtOH-gavaged rats compared to controls after H/R. Proapoptotic caspase-8 and Bax expressions were markedly diminished in EtOH-gavaged animals compared with controls 2 h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage increased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression compared with controls 2 h after resuscitation. iNOS protein expression increased following H/R but was attenuated in EtOH-gavaged animals after H/R. Taken together, the data suggest that acute EtOH-gavage may attenuate H/R-induced oxidative stress thereby reducing cellular injury in rat liver.
- Circulating leukotriene b4 identifies respiratory complications after trauma (2012)
- Background. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a proinflammatory lipid mediator correlates well with the acute phase of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Therefore, LTB4-levels were investigated to determine whether they might be a useful clinical marker in predicting pulmonary complications (PC) in multiply traumatized patients. Methods: Plasma levels of LTB4 were determined in 100 patients on admission (ED) and for five consecutive days (daily). Twenty healthy volunteers served as control. LTB4-levels were measured by ELISA. Thirty patients developed PC (pneumonia, respiratory failure, acute lung injury (ALI), ARDS, pulmonary embolism) and 70 had no PC (ØPC). Results. LTB4-levels in the PC-group [127.8 pg/mL, IQR: 104–200pg/ml] were significantly higher compared to the ØPC-group on admission [95.6 pg/mL, IQR: 55–143 pg/mL] or control-group [58.4 pg/mL, IQR: 36–108 pg/mL]. LTB4 continuously declined to basal levels from day 1 to 5 without differences between the groups. The cutoff to predict PC was calculated at 109.6 pg/mL (72% specificity, 67% sensitivity). LTB4 was not influenced by overall or chest injury severity, age, gender or massive transfusion. Patients with PC received mechanical ventilation for a significantly longer period of time, and had prolonged intensive care unit and overall hospital stay. Conclusion. High LTB4-levels indicate risk for PC development in multiply traumatized patients