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#### Institute

- Hypermatter : properties and formation in relativistic nuclear collisions (1995)
- The extension of the Periodic System into hitherto unexplored domains - anti- matter and hypermatter - is discussed. Starting from an analysis of hyperon and single hypernuclear properties we investigate the structure of multi-hyperon objects (MEMOs) using an extended relativistic meson field theory. These are contrasted with multi-strange quark states (strangelets). Their production mechanism is stud- ied for relativistic collisions of heavy ions from present day experiments at AGS and SPS to future opportunities at RHIC and LHC. It is pointed out that abso- lutely stable hypermatter is unlikely to be produced in heavy ion collisions. New attention should be focused on short lived metastable hyperclusters ( / 10 10s) and on intensity interferometry of multi-strange-baryon correlations.

- Diffusion of conserved charges in relativistic heavy ion collisions (2019)
- We discuss the diffusion currents occurring in a dilute system and show that the charge currents do not only depend on gradients in the corresponding charge density, but also on the other conserved charges in the system—the diffusion currents are therefore coupled. Gradients in one charge thus generate dissipative currents in a different charge. In this approach, we model the Navier-Stokes term of the generated currents to consist of a diffusion coefficient matrix, in which the diagonal entries are the usual diffusion coefficients and the off-diagonal entries correspond to the coupling of different diffusion currents. We evaluate the complete diffusion matrix for a specific hadron gas and for a simplified quark-gluon gas, including baryon, electric and strangeness charge. Our findings are that the off-diagonal entries can range within the same magnitude as the diagonal ones.

- Creation of strange matter at low initial m/T (1996)
- We demonstrate that the creation of strange matter is conceivable in the midrapidity region of heavy ion collisions at Brookhaven RHIC and CERN LHC. A finite net-baryon density, abundant (anti)strangeness production, as well as strong net-baryon and net-strangeness fluctuations, provide suitable initial conditions for the formation of strangelets or metastable exotic multistrange ( baryonic) objects. Even at very high initial entropy per baryon SyAinit ¯ 500 and low initial baryon numbers of Ainit B ¯ 30 a quark-gluon-plasma droplet can immediately charge up with strangeness and accumulate net-baryon number. PACS numbers: 25.75.Dw, 12.38.Mh, 24.85.+

- Dynamics of strangeness production and strange matter formation (1996)
- We want to draw the attention to the dynamics of a (finite) hadronizing quark matter drop. Strange and antistrange quarks do not hadronize at the same time for a baryon-rich system1. Both the hadronic and the quark matter phases enter the strange sector fs 6= 0 of the phase diagram almost immediately, which has up to now been neglected in almost all calculations of the time evolution of the system. Therefore it seems questionable, whether final particle yields reflect the actual thermodynamic properties of the system at a certain stage of the evolution. We put special interest on the possible formation of exotic states, namely strangelets (multistrange quark clusters). They may exist as (meta-)stable exotic isomers of nuclear matter 2. It was speculated that strange matter might exist also as metastable exotic multi-strange (baryonic) objects (MEMO s 3). The possible creation in heavy ion collisions of long-lived remnants of the quark-gluon-plasma, cooled and charged up with strangeness by the emission of pions and kaons, was proposed in 1,4,5. Strangelets can serve as signatures for the creation of a quark gluon plasma. Currently, both at the BNL-AGS and at the CERN-SPS experiments are carried out to search for MEMO s and strangelets, e. g. by the E864, E878 and the NA52 collaborations9,

- Baryon stopping and strangeness production in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions (1996)
- The stopping behaviour of baryons in massive heavy ion collisions ( s k 10AGeV) is investigated within di erent microscopic models. At SPS-energies the predictions range from full stopping to virtually total transparency. Experimental data are indicating strong stopping. The initial baryo-chemical potentials and temperatures at collider energies and their impact on the formation probability of strange baryon clusters and strangelets are discussed.

- Collective flow and mach cones with transport (2011)
- Fast thermalization and a strong build up of elliptic flow of QCD matter were investigated within the pQCD based 3+1 dimensional parton transport model BAMPS including bremsstrahlung 2 <-> 3 processes. Within the same framework quenching of gluonic jets in Au+Au collisions at RHIC can be understood. The development of conical structure by gluonic jets is investigated in a static box for the regimes of small and large dissipation. Furthermore we demonstrate two different approaches to extract the shear viscosity coefficient n from a microscopical picture.

- RHIC and LHC phenomena with an unified parton transport (2012)
- We discuss recent applications of the partonic pQCD based cascade model BAMPS with focus on heavy-ion phenomeneology in hard and soft momentum range. The nuclear modification factor as well as elliptic flow are calculated in BAMPS for RHIC end LHC energies. These observables are also discussed within the same framework for charm and bottom quarks. Contributing to the recent jet-quenching investigations we present first preliminary results on application of jet reconstruction algorithms in BAMPS. Finally, collective effects induced by jets are investigated: we demonstrate the development of Mach cones in ideal matter as well in the highly viscous regime.

- Properties of exotic matter for heavy ion searches (1997)
- We examine the properties of both forms of strange matter, small lumps of strange quark matter (strangelets) and of strange hadronic matter (Metastable Exotic Multihypernuclear Objects: MEMOs) and their relevance for present and future heavy ion searches. The strong and weak decays are discussed separately to distinguish between long-lived and short-lived candidates where the former ones are detectable in present heavy ion experiments while the latter ones in future heavy ion experiments, respectively. We find some long-lived strangelet candidates which are highly negatively charged with a mass to charge ratio like a anti deuteron (M/Z 2) but masses of A=10 to 16. We predict also many short-lived candidates, both in quark and in hadronic form, which can be highly charged. Purely hyperonic nuclei like the (2 02 ) are bound and have a negative charge while carrying a positive baryon number. We demonstrate also that multiply charmed exotics (charmlets) might be bound and can be produced at future heavy ion colliders.

- From microscopic interactions to the dynamics of the fireball (2014)
- We discuss recent applications of the partonic perturbative QCD based cascade model BAMPS with focus on heavy-ion phenomenology in the hard and soft momentum range. First, the elliptic flow and suppression of charm and bottom quarks are studied at LHC energies. Thereafter, we compare in a detailed study the standard Gunion-Bertsch approximation of the matrix elements for inelastic processes to the exact results in leading order perturbative QCD. Since a disagreement is found, we propose an improved Gunion-Bertsch matrix element, which agrees with the exact result in all phase space regions.

- Separation of strangeness from antistrangeness in the phase transition from quark to hadron matter: Possible formation of strange quark matter in heavy-ion collisions (1987)
- We present a mechanism for the separation of strangeness from antistrangeness in the deconfinement transition. For a net strangeness of zero in the total system, the population of s quarks is greatly enriched in the quark-gluon plasma, while the s¯ quarks drift into the hadronic phase. This separation could result in ‘‘strangelet’’ formation, i.e., metastable blobs of strange-quark matter, which could serve as a unique signature for quark-gluon plasma formation in heavy-ion collisions. PACS: 25.70.Np, 12.38.Mh