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- Acute ethanol gavage attenuates hemorrhage/resuscitation-induced hepatic oxidative stress in rats (2012)
- Acute ethanol intoxication increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hemorrhagic shock with subsequent resuscitation (H/R) also induces ROS resulting in cellular and hepatic damage in vivo. We examined the role of acute ethanol intoxication upon oxidative stress and subsequent hepatic cell death after H/R. 14 h before H/R, rats were gavaged with single dose of ethanol or saline (5 g/kg, EtOH and ctrl; H/R_EtOH or H/R_ctrl, resp.). Then, rats were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial blood pressure of 30 ± 2 mmHg for 60 min and resuscitated. Two control groups underwent surgical procedures without H/R (sham_ctrl and sham_EtOH, resp.). Liver tissues were harvested at 2, 24, and 72 h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage induced histological picture of acute fatty liver. Hepatic oxidative (4-hydroxynonenal, 4-HNE) and nitrosative (3-nitrotyrosine, 3-NT) stress were significantly reduced in EtOH-gavaged rats compared to controls after H/R. Proapoptotic caspase-8 and Bax expressions were markedly diminished in EtOH-gavaged animals compared with controls 2 h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage increased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression compared with controls 2 h after resuscitation. iNOS protein expression increased following H/R but was attenuated in EtOH-gavaged animals after H/R. Taken together, the data suggest that acute EtOH-gavage may attenuate H/R-induced oxidative stress thereby reducing cellular injury in rat liver.
- Human Endothelial-Like Differentiated Precursor Cells Maintain Their Endothelial Characteristics When Cocultured with Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Seeded onto Human Cancellous Bone (2013)
- Introduction. Cancellous bone is frequently used for filling bone defects in a clinical setting. It provides favourable conditions for regenerative cells such as MSC and early EPC. The combination of MSC and EPC results in superior bone healing in experimental bone healing models. Materials and Methods. We investigated the influence of osteogenic culture conditions on the endothelial properties of early EPC and the osteogenic properties of MSC when cocultured on cancellous bone. Additionally, cell adhesion, metabolic activity, and differentiation were assessed 2, 6, and 10 days after seeding. Results. The number of adhering EPC and MSC decreased over time; however the cells remained metabolically active over the 10-day measurement period. In spite of a decline of lineage specific markers, cells maintained their differentiation to a reduced level. Osteogenic stimulation of EPC caused a decline but not abolishment of endothelial characteristics and did not induce osteogenic gene expression. Osteogenic stimulation of MSC significantly increased their metabolic activity whereas collagen-1α and alkaline phosphatase gene expressions declined. When cocultured with EPC, MSC’s collagen-1α gene expression increased significantly. Conclusion. EPC and MSC can be cocultured in vitro on cancellous bone under osteogenic conditions, and coculturing EPC with MSC stabilizes the latter’s collagen-1α gene expression.
- Rapid development of intestinal cell damage following severe trauma : a prospective observational cohort study (2009)
- Introduction Loss of intestinal integrity has been implicated as an important contributor to the development of excessive inflammation following severe trauma. Thus far, clinical data concerning the occurrence and significance of intestinal damage after trauma remain scarce. This study investigates whether early intestinal epithelial cell damage occurs in trauma patients and, if present, whether such cell injury is related to shock, injury severity and the subsequent inflammatory response. Methods Prospective observational cohort study in 96 adult trauma patients. Upon arrival at the emergency room (ER) plasma levels of intestinal fatty acid binding protein (i-FABP), a specific marker for damage of differentiated enterocytes, were measured. Factors that potentially influence the development of intestinal cell damage after trauma were determined, including the presence of shock and the extent of abdominal trauma and general injury severity. Furthermore, early plasma levels of i-FABP were related to inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results Upon arrival at the ER, plasma i-FABP levels were increased compared with healthy volunteers, especially in the presence of shock (P < 0.01). The elevation of i-FABP was related to the extent of abdominal trauma as well as general injury severity (P < 0.05). Circulatory i-FABP concentrations at ER correlated positively with IL-6 and PCT levels at the first day (r2 = 0.19; P < 0.01 and r2 = 0.36; P < 0.001 respectively) and CRP concentrations at the second day after trauma (r2 = 0.25; P < 0.01). Conclusions This study reveals early presence of intestinal epithelial cell damage in trauma patients. The extent of intestinal damage is associated with the presence of shock and injury severity. Early intestinal damage precedes and is related to the subsequent developing inflammatory response.
- Circulating leukotriene b4 identifies respiratory complications after trauma (2012)
- Background. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a proinflammatory lipid mediator correlates well with the acute phase of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Therefore, LTB4-levels were investigated to determine whether they might be a useful clinical marker in predicting pulmonary complications (PC) in multiply traumatized patients. Methods: Plasma levels of LTB4 were determined in 100 patients on admission (ED) and for five consecutive days (daily). Twenty healthy volunteers served as control. LTB4-levels were measured by ELISA. Thirty patients developed PC (pneumonia, respiratory failure, acute lung injury (ALI), ARDS, pulmonary embolism) and 70 had no PC (ØPC). Results. LTB4-levels in the PC-group [127.8 pg/mL, IQR: 104–200pg/ml] were significantly higher compared to the ØPC-group on admission [95.6 pg/mL, IQR: 55–143 pg/mL] or control-group [58.4 pg/mL, IQR: 36–108 pg/mL]. LTB4 continuously declined to basal levels from day 1 to 5 without differences between the groups. The cutoff to predict PC was calculated at 109.6 pg/mL (72% specificity, 67% sensitivity). LTB4 was not influenced by overall or chest injury severity, age, gender or massive transfusion. Patients with PC received mechanical ventilation for a significantly longer period of time, and had prolonged intensive care unit and overall hospital stay. Conclusion. High LTB4-levels indicate risk for PC development in multiply traumatized patients
- Effect of sonic hedgehog/β-TCP composites on bone healing within the critical-sized rat femoral defect (2013)
- The creation of entirely synthetically derived bone substitute materials which are as effective as autologous bone grafts is desirable. Osteogenesis involves the concerted action of several proteins within a signaling cascade. Hedgehog proteins act upstream of this cascade, inducing the expression of various bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and promoting physiological bone healing. Therefore, the hypothesis that hedgehog signaling in bone defects improves bone healing more than BMP signaling alone was tested. Recombinant N-terminal sonic hedgehog protein (N-SHh), BMP-2 or a combination of the two was added to β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and 5-mm femoral midshaft defects in nude rats were filled with these composites. The defects were stabilized with mini-plates. After eight weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the femora were explanted. The radiological evaluation was followed by a three-point bending test and histological examination. BMP-2/β-TCP composites showed a trend of increased stiffness compared with the controls (β-TCP without protein). N-SHh/β-TCP composites had lower stiffness compared with the control group and the N-SHh/BMP-2/β-TCP composites also had lower average stiffness compared with the controls (all not significant). Histomorphometry, however, revealed abundant cartilage and bone core formation in the N-SHh-composite groups. The sum of the new cartilage and bone was highest in the combination group N-SHh/BMP-2 (not significant). The addition of N-SHh to bone substitute materials appears to delay bone healing at the applied concentration and observation time but also showed a trend for higher amounts of ossifying cartilage.