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- Relativistic shock waves and Mach cones in viscous gluon matter (2010)
- To investigate the formation and the propagation of relativistic shock waves in viscous gluon matter we solve the relativistic Riemann problem using a microscopic parton cascade. We demonstrate the transition from ideal to viscous shock waves by varying the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio n/s. Furthermore we compare our results with those obtained by solving the relativistic causal dissipative fluid equations of Israel and Stewart (IS), in order to show the validity of the IS hydrodynamics. Employing the parton cascade we also investigate the formation of Mach shocks induced by a high-energy gluon traversing viscous gluon matter. For n/s = 0.08 a Mach cone structure is observed, whereas the signal smears out for n/s >=0.32.

- Second order dissipative fluid dynamics from kinetic theory (2011)
- We derive the equations of second order dissipative fluid dynamics from the relativistic Boltzmann equation following the method of W. Israel and J. M. Stewart [1]. We present a frame independent calculation of all first- and second-order terms and their coefficients using a linearised collision integral. Therefore, we restore all terms that were previously neglected in the original papers of W. Israel and J. M. Stewart.

- Phase diagram of neutral quark matter at moderate densities (2006)
- We discuss the phase diagram of moderately dense, locally neutral three-flavor quark matter using the framework of an effective model of quantum chromodynamics with a local interaction. The phase diagrams in the plane of temperature and quark chemical potential as well as in the plane of temperature and lepton-number chemical potential are discussed.

- The phase diagram of neutral quark matter : the effect of neutrino trapping (2006)
- We study the effect of neutrino trapping on the phase diagram of dense, locally neutral three-flavor quark matter within the framework of a Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. In the analysis, dynamically generated quark masses are taken into account self-consistently. The phase diagrams in the plane of temperature and quark chemical potential, as well as in the plane of temperature and lepton-number chemical potential are presented. We show that neutrino trapping favors two-flavor color superconductivity and disfavors the color-flavor-locked phase at intermediate densities of matter. At the same time, the location of the critical line separating the two-flavor color-superconducting phase and the normal phase of quark matter is little affected by the presence of neutrinos. The implications of these results for the evolution of protoneutron stars are briefly discussed. PACS numbers: 12.39.-x 12.38.Aw 26.60.+c

- The phase diagram of neutral quark matter : self-consistent treatment of quark masses (2005)
- We study the phase diagram of dense, locally neutral three-flavor quark matter within the framework of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. In the analysis, dynamically generated quark masses are taken into account self-consistently. The phase diagram in the plane of temperature and quark chemical potential is presented. The results for two qualitatively different regimes, intermediate and strong diquark coupling strength, are presented. It is shown that the role of gapless phases diminishes with increasing diquark coupling strength.

- Phase diagram of dense neutral three-flavor quark matter (2004)
- We study the phase diagram of dense, locally neutral three-flavor quark matter as a function of the strange quark mass, the quark chemical potential, and the temperature, employing a general nine-parameter ansatz for the gap matrix. At zero temperature and small values of the strange quark mass, the ground state of matter corresponds to the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase. At some critical value of the strange quark mass, this is replaced by the recently proposed gapless CFL (gCFL) phase. We also find several other phases, for instance, a metallic CFL (mCFL) phase, a so-called uSC phase where all colors of up quarks are paired, as well as the standard two-flavor color-superconducting (2SC) phase and the gapless 2SC (g2SC) phase.

- Gapless phases of colour-superconducting matter (2004)
- We discuss gapless colour superconductivity for neutral quark matter in β equilibrium at zero as well as at nonzero temperature. Basic properties of gapless superconductors are reviewed. The current progress and the remaining problems in the understanding of the phase diagram of strange quark matter are discussed.

- Effect of color superconductivity on the mass and radius of a quark star (2003)
- We compare quark stars made of color-superconducting quark matter to normal-conducting quark stars. We focus on the most simple color-superconducting system, a two-flavor color superconductor, and employ the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model to compute the gap parameter and the equation of state. By varying the strength of the four-fermion coupling of the NJL model, we study the mass and the radius of the quark star as a function of the value of the gap parameter. If the coupling constant exceeds a critical value, the gap parameter does not vanish even at zero density. For coupling constants below this critical value, mass and radius of a color-superconducting quark star change at most by ca. 20% compared to a star consisting of normal-conducting quark matter. For coupling constants above the critical value mass and radius may change by factors of two or more.

- Creation of strange-quark-matter droplets as a unique signature for quark-gluon plasma formation in relativistic heavy-ion collisions (1988)
- We demonstrate that strangeness separates in the Gibbs-phase coexistence between a baryon-rich quark-gluon plasma and hadron matter, even at T=0. For finite temperatures this is due to the associated production of kaons (containing s¯ quarks) in the hadron phase while s quarks remain in the deconfined phase. The s-s¯ separation results in a strong enhancement of the s-quark abundance in the quark phase. This mechanism is further supported by cooling and net strangeness enrichment due to the prefreezeout evaporation of pions and K+, K0, which carry away entropy and anti- strangeness from the system. Metastable droplets (i.e., stable as far as weak interactions are not regarded) of strange-quark matter (‘‘strangelets’’) can thus be formed during the phase transition. Such cool, compact, long-lived clusters could be experimentally observed by their unusually small Z/A ratio (≤0.1–0.3). Even if the strange-quark-matter phase is not stable under strong interactions, it should be observable by the delayed correlated emission of several hyperons. This would serve as a unique signature for the transient formation of a quark-gluon plasma.

- Flow in conical shock waves : a signal for the deconfinement transition? (1990)
- We investigate the hydrodynamical flow of nuclear matter in a conical-shock-wave scenario of a central, asymmetric heavy-ion collision. This work is motivated by a suggestion of Chapline and Granik that the creation of a deconfined phase of quarks and gluons behind the shock will appreciably increase the deflection angle of the matter flow. We employ several hadron matter equations of state recently suggested to solve the conical-shock-wave problem and compare the results with a calculation using the bag equation of state. We find that large differences in the deflection angle obtained in the rest frame of the shock vanish in the laboratory system. However, a signature for the deconfinement transition may be the transverse momentum of the matter flow, which is up to a factor of 2 larger for the quark-gluon plasma. Thus, an excitation function of the mean transverse momentum would show an increase at a certain bombarding energy, signaling the onset of the deconfinement transition.