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- Chemical equilibrium study in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies (2004)
- We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies of 11.6, 30, 40, 80 and 158A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization approach, we have studied the strangeness production as a function of centre of mass energy and of the parameters of the source. We have tested and compared different versions of the statistical model, with special emphasis on possible explanations of the observed strangeness hadronic phase space under-saturation. We show that, in this energy range, the use of hadron yields at midrapidity instead of in full phase space artificially enhances strangeness production and could lead to incorrect conclusions as far as the occurrence of full chemical equilibrium is concerned. In addition to the basic model with an extra strange quark non-equilibrium parameter, we have tested three more schemes: a two-component model superimposing hadrons coming out of single nucleon-nucleon interactions to those emerging from large fireballs at equilibrium, a model with local strangeness neutrality and a model with strange and light quark non-equilibrium parameters. The behaviour of the source parameters as a function of colliding system and collision energy is studied. The description of strangeness production entails a non-monotonic energy dependence of strangeness saturation parameter gamma_S with a maximum around 30A GeV. We also present predictions of the production rates of still unmeasured hadrons including the newly discovered Theta^+(1540) pentaquark baryon.

- Study on chemical equilibrium in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies (2004)
- We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies of 11.6, 30, 40, 80 and 158A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization approach, we have studied the chemical equilibration of the system as a function of center of mass energy and of the parameters of the source. Additionally, we have tested and compared different versions of the statistical model, with special emphasis on possible explanations of the observed strangeness hadronic phase space under-saturation.

- Energy and system size dependence of chemical freeze-out in relativistic nuclear collisions (2005)
- We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in p-p, C-C, Si-Si and Pb-Pb collisions at beam momenta of 158A GeV as well as Pb-Pb collisions at beam momenta of 20A, 30A, 40A and 80A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization model, we have studied the parameters of the source as a function of the number of the participating nucleons and the beam energy. We observe a nice smooth behaviour of temperature, baryon chemical potential and strangeness under-saturation parameter as a function of energy and nucleus size. Interpolating formulas are provided which allow to predict the chemical freeze-out parameters in central collisions at centre-of-mass energies > 4.5 GeV and for any colliding ions. Specific discrepancies between data and model emerge in particle ratios in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS between 20A and 40A GeV of beam energy which cannot be accounted for in the considered model schemes.

- On chemical equilibrium in nuclear collisions (1997)
- The data on average hadron multiplicities in central A+A collisions measured at CERN SPS are analysed with the ideal hadron gas model. It is shown that the full chemical equilibrium version of the model fails to describe the experimental results. The agreement of the data with the off-equilibrium version allowing for partial strangeness saturation is significantly better. The freeze-out temperature of about 180 MeV seems to be independent of the system size (from S+S to Pb+Pb) and in agreement with that extracted in e+e-, pp and p{\bar p} collisions. The strangeness suppression is discussed at both hadron and valence quark level. It is found that the hadronic strangeness saturation factor gamma_S increases from about 0.45 for pp interactions to about 0.7 for central A+A collisions with no significant change from S+S to Pb+Pb collisions. The quark strangeness suppression factor lambda_S is found to be about 0.2 for elementary collisions and about 0.4 for heavy ion collisions independently of collision energy and type of colliding system

- Study of Λ polarization in relativistic nuclear collisions at √sNN=7.7–200 GeV (2017)
- We present a calculation of the global polarization of Λ hyperons in relativistic Au–Au collisions at RHIC Beam Energy Scan range sNN−−−√=7.7−200 GeV with a 3+1-dimensional cascade+viscous hydro model, UrQMD+vHLLE. Within this model, the mean polarization of Λ in the out-of-plane direction is predicted to decrease rapidly with collision energy from a top value of about 2% at the lowest energy examined. We explore the connection between the polarization signal and thermal vorticity and estimate the feed-down contribution to Λ polarization due to the decay of higher mass hyperons.

- Spin tensor and its role in non-equilibrium thermodynamics (2018)
- It is shown that the description of a relativistic fluid at local thermodynamic equilibrium depends on the particular quantum stress-energy tensor operator chosen, e.g., the canonical or symmetrized Belinfante stress-energy tensor. We argue that the Belinfante tensor is not appropriate to describe a relativistic fluid whose macroscopic polarization relaxes slowly to thermodynamic equilibrium and that a spin tensor, like the canonical spin tensor, is required. As a consequence, the description of a polarized relativistic fluid involves an extension of relativistic hydrodynamics including a new antisymmetric rank-two tensor as a dynamical field. We show that the canonical and Belinfante tensors lead to different predictions for measurable quantities such as spectrum and polarization of particles produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

- Hadronization conditions in relativistic nuclear collisions and the QCD pseudo-critical line (2016)
- We compare the reconstructed hadronization conditions in relativistic nuclear collisions in the nucleon–nucleon centre-of-mass energy range 4.7–2760 GeV in terms of temperature and baryon-chemical potential with lattice QCD calculations, by using hadronic multiplicities. We obtain hadronization temperatures and baryon chemical potentials with a fit to measured multiplicities by correcting for the effect of post-hadronization rescattering. The post-hadronization modification factors are calculated by means of a coupled hydrodynamical-transport model simulation under the same conditions of approximate isothermal and isochemical decoupling as assumed in the statistical hadronization model fits to the data. The fit quality is considerably better than without rescattering corrections, as already found in previous work. The curvature of the obtained “true” hadronization pseudo-critical line κ is found to be 0.0048 ± 0.0026, in agreement with lattice QCD estimates; the pseudo-critical temperature at vanishing is found to be 164.3 ± 1.8 MeV.

- Hadronic freeze-out in A+A collisions meets the lattice QCD parton-hadron transition line (2013)
- We analyze hadrochemical freeze-out in central Pb+Pb collisions at CERN SPS and LHC energies. Employing the UrQMD hybrid transport model we study the effects of the final hadron/resonance expansion phase on the hadron multiplicities established at hadronization. The bulk meson yields freeze out directly at hadronization whereas the baryon-antibaryon sector is subject to significant alterations, due to annihilation and regeneration processes. We quantify the latter changes by survival factors for each species which are applied to modify the statistical model predictions for the data. The modified SM analysis recovers the hadronization points, which coincide with the recent lattice QCD predictions of the parton-hadron transition line at finite baryochemical potential.

- Hadronization, chemical equilibrium and chemical freeze-out (2013)
- Recent results on baryon production in relativistic heavy ion collisions show that a revision of the chemical freeze-out conditions is necessary. Particularly, there is evidence that chemical freezeout does not occur at full chemical equilibrium. We present a method to reconstruct original hadronization conditions and show that the newly found points in the T − µB plane are in very good agreement with extrapolations of the lattice QCD critical line.