- Collective treatment of the giant resonances in spherical nuclei (1966)
- In a collective treatment the energies of the giant resonances are given by the boundary conditions at the nuclear surface, which is subject to vibration in spherical nuclei. The general form of the coupling between these two collective motions is given by angular-momentum and parity conservation. The coupling constants are completely determined within the hydrodynamical model. In the present treatment the influence of the surface vibrations on the total photon-absorption cross section is calculated. It turns out that in most of the spherical nuclei this interaction leads to a pronounced structure in the cross section. The agreement with the experiments in medium-heavy nuclei is striking; many of the experimental characteristics are reproduced by the present calculations. In some nuclei, however, there seem to be indications of single-particle excitations which are not yet contained in this work.
- Excitation function of energy density and partonic degrees of freedom in relativistic heavy ion collisions (1998)
- We estimate the energy density epsilon pile-up at mid-rapidity in central Pb+Pb collisions from 2 200 GeV/nucleon. epsilon is decomposed into hadronic and partonic contributions. A detailed analysis of the collision dynamics in the framework of a microscopic transport model shows the importance of partonic degrees of freedom and rescattering of leading (di)quarks in the early phase of the reaction for Elab 30 GeV/nucleon. In Pb+Pb collisions at 160 GeV/nucleon the energy density reaches up to 4 GeV/fm3, 95% of which are contained in partonic degrees of freedom.
- Equilibrium and nonequilibrium effects in nucleus nucleus collisions (1999)
- Abstract: Local thermal and chemical equilibration is studied for central AqA collisions at 10.7 160 AGeV in the Ultrarelativis- . tic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model UrQMD . The UrQMD model exhibits strong deviations from local equilibrium at the high density hadron string phase formed during the early stage of the collision. Equilibration of the hadron resonance matter is established in the central cell of volume Vs125 fm3 at later stages, tG10 fmrc, of the resulting quasi-isentropic expansion. The thermodynamical functions in the cell and their time evolution are presented. Deviations of the UrQMD quasi-equilibrium state from the statistical mechanics equilibrium are found. They increase with energy per baryon and lead to a strong enhancement of the pion number density as compared to statistical mechanics estimates at SPS energies. PACS: 25.75.-q; 24.10.Lx; 24.10.Pa; 64.30.qt
- Relativistic hadron-hadron collisions in the ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics model (1999)
- Hadron-hadron collisions at high energies are investigated in the Ultra- relativistic-Quantum-Molecular-Dynamics approach. This microscopic trans- port model describes the phenomenology of hadronic interactions at low and intermediate energies ( s < 5 GeV) in terms of interactions between known hadrons and their resonances. At higher energies, s > 5 GeV, the excitation of color strings and their subsequent fragmentation into hadrons dominates the multiple production of particles in the UrQMD model. The model shows a fair overall agreement with a large body of experimental h-h data over a wide range of h-h center-of-mass energies. Hadronic reaction data with higher precision would be useful to support the use of the UrQMD model for relativistic heavy ion collisions.
- Hadronic observables from SIS to SPS energies: anything strange with strangeness? (2002)
- We calculate p, ±,K± and (+ 0) rapidity distributions and compare to experimental data from SIS to SPS energies within the UrQMD and HSD transport approaches that are both based on string, quark, diquark (q, ¯q, qq, ¯q ¯q) and hadronic degrees of freedom. The two transport models do not include any explicit phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma (QGP). It is found that both approaches agree rather well with each other and with the experimental rapidity distributions for protons, s, ± and K±. In- spite of this apparent agreement both transport models fail to reproduce the maximum in the excitation function for the ratio K+/ + found experimen- tally between 11 and 40 A·GeV. A comparison to the various experimental data shows that this failure is dominantly due to an insu cient description of pion rapidity distributions rather than missing strangeness . The modest di erences in the transport model results on the other hand can be attributed to di erent implementations of string formation and frag- mentation, that are not su ciently controlled by experimental data for the elementary reactions in vacuum.
- Nucleus-nucleus collisions at high baryon densities (2002)
- We study central collision of Pb + Pb at 20, 40, 80 and 160 A·GeV within the UrQMD transport approach and compare rapidity distributions of ,K+,K and with the recent measurements from the NA49 Collaboration at 40, 80 and 160 A·GeV. It is found that the UrQMD model reasonably describes the data, however, systematically overpredicts the yield by < 20%, whereas the K+ yield is underestimated by < 15%. The K yields are in a good agreement with the experimental data, the yields are also in a reasonable correspondence with the data for all energies. We find that hadronic flavour exchange reactions largely distort the information about the initial strangeness production mechanism at all energies considered. PACS: 25.75.+r
- Privacy impact assessment – a privacy protection improvement model? (2012)
- A Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA) is a systematic risk assessment tool, enabling organizations to maintain compliance with data protection regulations, to manage privacy risks and to provide public benefits through the success of privacy-by-design efforts. An actual practical implementation of a PIA framework has been realized in the context of RFID applications encompassing detailed steps for the PIA process; a first successful review has been completed. The PIA also allows to introduce a pro-active mitigation of privacy risks through technical and organizational controls. The better the precautionary measures realize the relevant privacy objectives, the less likely will occur with the PIA process afterwards. The recent proposal for a far-reaching revision of the EU Data Protection Directive envisages to state a specific requirement to implement a PIA process. Indeed, since risks for privacy and non-disclosure of personal data are different in not identical circumstances, the protection measures should also be different, i.e. technology should assist in trying to achieve the (at least) second-best solution for the implementation of the data protection regime by a PIA. Insofar, privacy rules can be individualized and matched with the concrete needs in the given environment.