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- Analysis of HOM interaction between cavities by multi-modal s-parameter measurements (1998)
- Accelerating cavities exchange HOM power through interconnecting beam pipes in case of signal frequencies above the cut-off of their propagating waveguide modes. This may lead either to improved HOM damping or - in the case most severe - to unwanted phase coherence of fields to the beam. Therefore the knowledge of the scattering properties of a cavity as a line element is needed to analyse all kinds of RF cavity-cavity interaction. Since there is a lack of measurement tools capable to provide a multidimensional scattering matrix at a given frequency point, we have been developing a method for this purpose. It uses a set of 2-port S-parameters of the device under test, embedded in a number of geometrically different RF environments. The application of the method is demonstrated with copper models of TESLA cavities.

- Energy Propagation through the TESLA Channel: Measurements with Two Waveguides Modes (1996)
- A new method for the determination of S-matrices of devices in multimoded waveguides and first experimental experiences are presented. The theoretical foundations are given. The scattering matrix of a TESLA copper cavity at a frequency above the cut-off of the second waveguide mode has been measured.

- The design of the HOM-damping cells for the S-band linear collider (1994)
- Damping cells for the higher order modes are necessary for the S-band linear collider to minimize BBU (Beam-Break-Up). The construction of the damper cells has to take into account the different field geometries of the higher order modes. So two different types of dampers have been designed: a wall slotted an an iris slotted cell. In order to optimize the two types of damping cells with respect to damping strength, impedance matching between coupling system and waveguide dampers and between damping cell and undamped cells and the tuning system, damping cells of both types have been built and examinated.

- The effect of a single HOM-damper cell within a channel of undamped cells (1994)
- The effect of a single HOM-damper cell within a channel of undamped cells is described theoretically using an equivalent circuit model. From this a simple equation can be derived which relates the Q-value of the single damping-cell, the bandwidth of the passband under consideration, and the additional phase shift which is introduced by the damper cell to provide energy flow into the damper cell. This equation immediately shows the limitations of such single cell damping systems. Comparisons with experimental results are shown.

- Transversal loss factor of an rf-focussing iris structure with rectangular holes (1992)
- By replacing the irises in an electron linac by a slit one gets a structure capable of focussing/defocussing an electron beam (rf-quadrupoles). Therefore one can think of a combination of rf- and conventional magnetic quadrupoles for transversal focussing in linear-colliders. Furthermore they can meet the demands of BNS-damping without initial energy spread. Considering multibunch-operation of a collider, the long-range wake behaviour of this kind of structure has to be investigated. A three-cell structure has been built and investigated for dipole-type transversal long-range wakes. The experimental results are compared to numerical simulations done with MAFIA.

- Rise time of the amplitudes of time harmonic fields in multicell cavities (1993)
- Wall losses can cause a coupling between eigenmodes in a cavity. The magnitude of the effect can be determinated by means of eigenmode expansion. The influence on rise time of forced oscillations is calculated. Results for brick resonator and a six-cell iris structure are presented.

- The possibility of introducing additional focusing caused by the circular irises in iris loaded accelerator sections (1993)
- To reach high luminosities in future linear colliders short range wakes havea to be controlled in the range of X-band frequencies or higher. Rectangular irises can be used to introduce strong focusing quadrupole-like rf-fields. Even circular irises in iris-loaded accelarator structures have the capability of focusing if the particle velocity differs from phase velocity. Theoretical investigations concerning the focusing strength to be expected are presented. Their applicability for linear colliders is discussed.

- Mode propagation in an iris type accelerator section loaded with single heavily HOM-damped cells (1994)
- The wakefield effects in accelerator sections for future linear colliders will be reduced either by damping by detuning or by a combination of both. For the DESY/THD linac [1] it is forseen to employ heavily HOM-damped cells to provide a strong coupling to the TE/TM11-dipole passband as well as to the TM/TE11-dipole passband. For our experiments we have used wall-slotted damping cells. This leads to several problems concerning the propagation of fundamental and HOM-modes. Experimental investigations have been done. Results are presented.

- The diffraction model and its applicability for wakefield calculations (2000)
- The operation of a Free Electron Laser (FEL) in the ultraviolet or in the X-ray regime requires the acceleration of electron bunches with an rms length of 25 to 50 mikrometer. The wakefields generated by these sub picosecond bunches extend into the frequency range well beyond the threshold for Cooper pair breakup (about 750 GHz) in superconducting niobium at 2 K. It is shown, that the superconducting cavities can indeed be operated with 25 mikrometer bunches without suffering a breakdown of superconductivity (quench), however at the price of a reduced quality factor and an increased heat transfer to the superfluid helium bath. This was first shown by wakefield calculations based on the diffraction model [1]. In the meantime a more conventional method of computing wake fields in the time domain by numerical methods was developed and used for the wakefield calculations [2]. Both methods lead to comparable results: the operation of TESLA with 25 mikrometer bunches is possible but leads to an additional heat load due to the higher order modes (HOMs). Therefore HOM dampers for these high frequencies are under construction [3]. These dampers are located in the beam pipes between the 9-cell cavities. So it is of interest, if there are trapped modes in the cavity due to closed photon orbits. In this paper we investigate the existence of trapped modes and the distribution of heat load over the surface of the TESLA cavity by numerical photon tracking.