- Coordinated optimization of visual cortical maps (II) numerical studies (2012)
- In the juvenile brain, the synaptic architecture of the visual cortex remains in a state of flux for months after the natural onset of vision and the initial emergence of feature selectivity in visual cortical neurons. It is an attractive hypothesis that visual cortical architecture is shaped during this extended period of juvenile plasticity by the coordinated optimization of multiple visual cortical maps such as orientation preference (OP), ocular dominance (OD), spatial frequency, or direction preference. In part (I) of this study we introduced a class of analytically tractable coordinated optimization models and solved representative examples, in which a spatially complex organization of the OP map is induced by interactions between the maps. We found that these solutions near symmetry breaking threshold predict a highly ordered map layout. Here we examine the time course of the convergence towards attractor states and optima of these models. In particular, we determine the timescales on which map optimization takes place and how these timescales can be compared to those of visual cortical development and plasticity. We also assess whether our models exhibit biologically more realistic, spatially irregular solutions at a finite distance from threshold, when the spatial periodicities of the two maps are detuned and when considering more than 2 feature dimensions. We show that, although maps typically undergo substantial rearrangement, no other solutions than pinwheel crystals and stripes dominate in the emerging layouts. Pinwheel crystallization takes place on a rather short timescale and can also occur for detuned wavelengths of different maps. Our numerical results thus support the view that neither minimal energy states nor intermediate transient states of our coordinated optimization models successfully explain the architecture of the visual cortex. We discuss several alternative scenarios that may improve the agreement between model solutions and biological observations.
- Coordinated optimization of visual cortical maps (I) symmetry-based analysis (2012)
- In the primary visual cortex of primates and carnivores, functional architecture can be characterized by maps of various stimulus features such as orientation preference (OP), ocular dominance (OD), and spatial frequency. It is a long-standing question in theoretical neuroscience whether the observed maps should be interpreted as optima of a specific energy functional that summarizes the design principles of cortical functional architecture. A rigorous evaluation of this optimization hypothesis is particularly demanded by recent evidence that the functional architecture of orientation columns precisely follows species invariant quantitative laws. Because it would be desirable to infer the form of such an optimization principle from the biological data, the optimization approach to explain cortical functional architecture raises the following questions: i) What are the genuine ground states of candidate energy functionals and how can they be calculated with precision and rigor? ii) How do differences in candidate optimization principles impact on the predicted map structure and conversely what can be learned about a hypothetical underlying optimization principle from observations on map structure? iii) Is there a way to analyze the coordinated organization of cortical maps predicted by optimization principles in general? To answer these questions we developed a general dynamical systems approach to the combined optimization of visual cortical maps of OP and another scalar feature such as OD or spatial frequency preference. From basic symmetry assumptions we obtain a comprehensive phenomenological classification of possible inter-map coupling energies and examine representative examples. We show that each individual coupling energy leads to a different class of OP solutions with different correlations among the maps such that inferences about the optimization principle from map layout appear viable. We systematically assess whether quantitative laws resembling experimental observations can result from the coordinated optimization of orientation columns with other feature maps.
- Two generic mechanisms for emergence of direction selectivity coexist in recurrent neural networks (2013)
- Poster presentation: Twenty Second Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting: CNS*2013. Paris, France. 13-18 July 2013. In the mammalian visual cortex, the time-averaged response of many neurons is maximal for stimuli moving in a particular direction. Such a direction selective response is not found in LGN, upstream of the visual processing pathway, suggesting that cortical networks play a strong role in the generation of direction selectivity. Here we investigate the mechanisms for the emergence of direction selectivity in the recurrent networks of nonlinear firing rate neurons in layer 4 of V1 receiving the input from LGN. In the model the LGN inputs are characterized by different receptive field positions, and their relative temporal phase shifts are reversed for the stimuli moving in the opposite direction. We propose that two distinct mechanisms result in the neuronal direction selective response in these recurrent networks. The first one is a result of nonlinear feed-forward summation of several time-shifted inputs. The second mechanism is based on the competition between neurons for firing in a winner-take-all regime. Both mechanisms rely on inhibitory interactions in the connectivity matrix of lateral connections, but the second one involves inhibitory loops. Typically, the first mechanism results in lower selectivity values than the second, but the time-course of acquiring direction selective response is faster for the first mechanism. Importantly, the two mechanisms have different input frequency tuning. The first mechanism, based on the nonlinear summation, result in a relatively narrow tuning curve around the preferred frequency of the stimulus in the case of the moving grating. In contrast, the direction selectivity arising from the second mechanism depends only weakly on the input frequency, i.e. has a broader tuning curve. These differences allow us to provide the recipe for identifying in experiment which of the two mechanisms is used by a given direction selective neuron. We then analyze how the statistics of the connections in the random recurrent networks affect the relative contributions from these two mechanisms and determine the distributions of the direction selectivity values. We identify the motifs in the connectivity matrix, which are required for each mechanism and show that the minimal conditions for both mechanisms are met in a very broad set of random recurrent networks with sufficiently strong inhibitory connections. Thus, we propose that these mechanisms coexist in generic recurrent networks with inhibition. Our results may account for the recent experimental observations that direction selectivity is present in dark-reared mice and ferrets [1,2]. It can also explain the emergence of direction selectivity in species lacking a spatially organized direction selectivity map.
- The emergence of cohorts of co-active neurons in random recurrent networks provides a mechanism for orientation and direction selectivity (2014)
- Poster presentation at The Twenty Third Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting: CNS*2014 Québec City, Canada. 26-31 July 2014: We study random strongly heterogeneous recurrent networks of firing rate neurons, introducing the notion of cohorts: groups of co-active neurons, who compete for firing with one another and whose presence depends sensitively on the structure of the input. The identities of neurons recruited to and dropped from an active cohort changes smoothly with varying input features. We search for network parameter regimes in which the activation of cohorts is robust yet easily switchable by the external input and which exhibit large repertoires of different cohorts. We apply these networks to model the emergence of orientation and direction selectivity in visual cortex. We feed these random networks with a set of harmonic inputs that vary across neurons only in their temporal phase, mimicking the feedforward drive due to a moving grating stimulus. The relationship between the phases that carries the information about the orientation of the stimulus determines which cohort of neurons is activated. As a result the individual neurons acquire non-monotonic orientation tuning curves which are characterized by high orientation and direction selectivity. This mechanism of emergence for direction selectivity differs from the classical motion detector scheme, which is based on the nonlinear summation of the time-shifted inputs. In our model these two mechanisms coexist in the same network, but can be distinguished by their different frequency and contrast dependences. In general, the mechanism we are studying here converts temporal phase sequence into population activity and could therefore be used to extract and represent also various other relevant stimulus features.