- HBT radii from the UrQMD transport approach at different energies (2011)
- We present results on Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) radii extracted from the Ultra-relativistic Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) approach to relativistic heavy ion collisions. The present investigation provides a comparison of results from pure hadronic transport calculations to a Boltzmann + Hydrodynamic hybrid approach with an intermediate hydrodynamic phase. For the hydrodynamic phase different Equations of State (EoS) have been employed, i.e. bag model, hadron resonance gas and a chiral EoS. The influence of various freeze-out scenarios has been investigated and shown to be negligible if hadronic rescatterings after the hydrodynamic evolution are included. Furthermore, first results of the source tilt from azimuthal sensitive HBT and the direct extraction from the transport model are presented and exhibit a very good agreement with E895 data at AGS.
- Sequential Dosing in Chemosensitization: Targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway in Neuroblastoma (2013)
- Breaking resistance to chemotherapy is a major goal of combination therapy in many tumors, including advanced neuroblastoma. We recently demonstrated that increased activity of the PI3K/Akt network is associated with poor prognosis, thus providing an ideal target for chemosensitization. Here we show that targeted therapy using the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 significantly enhances doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells. Importantly, this increase in apoptosis was dependent on scheduling: while pretreatment with the inhibitor reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, the sensitizing effect in co-treatment could further be increased by delayed addition of the inhibitor post chemotherapy. Desensitization for doxorubicin-induced apoptosis seemed to be mediated by a combination of cell cycle-arrest and autophagy induction, whereas sensitization was found to occur at the level of mitochondria within one hour of NVP-BEZ235 posttreatment, leading to a rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential with subsequent cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. Within the relevant time span we observed marked alterations in a ~30 kDa protein associated with mitochondrial proteins and identified it as VDAC1/Porin protein, an integral part of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex. VDAC1 is negatively regulated by the PI3K/Akt pathway via GSK3β and inhibition of GSK3β, which is activated when Akt is blocked, ablated the sensitizing effect of NVP-BEZ235 posttreatment. Our findings show that cancer cells can be sensitized for chemotherapy induced cell death – at least in part – by NVP-BEZ235-mediated modulation of VDAC1. More generally, we show data that suggest that sequential dosing, in particular when multiple inhibitors of a single pathway are used in the optimal sequence, has important implications for the general design of combination therapies involving molecular targeted approaches towards the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling network.