Year of publication
- Relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions : a connection between the strangeness maximum at square root s approximately equal to 7 GeV and the QCD critical endpoint from lattice studies (2003)
- A steep maximum occurs in the Wroblewski ratio between strange and non-strange quarks created in central nucleus-nucleus collisions, of about A=200, at the lower SPS energy square root s approximately equal to 7 GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the grand canonical statistical hadronization model this maximum is shown to occur at a baryochemical potential of about 450 MeV. In comparison, recent QCD lattice calculations at finite baryochemical potential suggest a steep maximum of the light quark susceptibility, to occur at similar mu B, indicative of "critical fluctuation" expected to occur at or near the QCD critical endpoint. This endpoint hat not been firmly pinned down but should occur in the 300 MeV < mu c B < 700 MeV interval. It is argued that central collisions within the low SPS energy range should exhibit a turning point between compression/heating, and expansion/cooling at energy density, temperature and mu B close to the suspected critical point. Whereas from top SPS to RHIC energy the primordial dynamics create a turning point far above in epsilon and T, and far below in mu B. And at lower AGS energies the dynamical trajectory stays below the phase boundary. Thus, the observed sharp strangeness maximum might coincide with the critical square root s at which the dynamics settles at, or near the QCD endpoint.
- System-size dependence of strangeness production in high-energy A+A collisions and percolation of strings (2005)
- We argue that the shape of the system-size dependence of strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be understood in a picture that is based on the formation of clusters of overlapping strings. A string percolation model combined with a statistical description of the hadronization yields a quantitative agreement with the data at sqrt s_NN = 17.3 GeV. The model is also applied to RHIC energies.
- Central collisions of relativistic heavy ions (1977)
- The energy spectra of protons and light nuclei produced by the interaction of 4He and 20Ne projectiles with Al and U targets have been investigated at incident energies ranging from 0.25 to 2.1 GeV per nucleon. Single fragment inclusive spectra have been obtained at angles between 25° and 150°, in the energy range from 30 to 150 MeV/nucleon. The multiplicity of intermediate and high energy charged particles was determined in coincidence with the measured fragments. In a separate study, fragment spectra were obtained in the evaporation energy range from 12C and 20Ne bombardment of uranium. We observe structureless, exponentially decaying spectra throughout the range of studied fragment masses. There is evidence for two major classes of fragments; one with emission at intermediate temperature from a system moving slowly in the lab frame, and the other with high temperature emission from a system propagating at a velocity intermediate between target and projectile. The high energy proton spectra are fairly well reproduced by a nuclear fireball model based on simple geometrical, kinematical, and statistical assumptions. Light cluster emission is also discussed in the framework of statistical models. NUCLEAR REACTIONS U(20Ne,X), E=250 MeV/nucl.; U(20Ne,X), U(α,X) E=400 MeV/nucl.; U(20Ne,X), Al(20Ne,X), E=2.1 GeV/nucl.; measured σ(E,θ), X=p, d, t, 3He,4He. U(20Ne,X), U(α,X), E=400 MeV/nucl.; U(20Ne,X), E=2.1 GeV/nucl.; measured σ(E, θ), Li to O. U(20Ne,X), U(12C,X), E=2.1 GeV/nucl.; measured σ(E, 90°), 4He to B. Nuclear fireballs, coalescence, thermodynamics of light nuclei production.
- On transverse momentum event–by–event fluctuations in string hadronic models (1998)
- Transverse momentum event-by-event fluctuations are studied within the string-hadronic model of high energy nuclear collisions, LUCIAE. Data on non-statistical pT fluctuations in p+p interactions are reproduced. Fluctuations of similar magnitude are predicted for nucleus-nucleus collisions, in contradiction to the preliminary NA49 results. The introduction of a string clustering mechanism (Firecracker Model) leads to a further, significant increase of pT fluctuations for nucleus-nucleus collisions. Secondary hadronic interactions, as implemented in LUCIAE, cause only a small reduction of pT fluctuations.
- Bulk hadron production at AGS and SPS (2002)
- With new data available from the SPS, at 40 and 80 GeV/A, I review the systematics of bulk hadron multiplicities, with prime focus on strangeness production. The classical concept of strangeness enhancement in central AA collisions is reviewed, in view of the statistical hadronization model which suggests to understand strangeness enhancement to arise chiefly in the transition from the canonical to the grand canonical version of that model. I. e. enhancement results from the fading away of canonical suppression. The model also captures the striking strangeness maximum observed in the vicinity of sqrt s approx 8 GeV. A puzzle remains in the understanding of apparent grand canonical order at the lower SPS, and at AGS energies.
- Hadron production in relativistic nuclear collisions (2003)
- Relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions create a "fireball" of strongly interacting matter at high energy density. At very high energy this is suggested to be partonic matter, but at lower energy it should consist of yet unknown hadronic, perhaps coherent degrees of freedom. The freeze-out of this high density state to a hadron gas can tell us about properties of fireball matter. Date (v1): Thu, 19 Dec 2002 12:52:34 GMT (146kb) Date (revised v2): Thu, 16 Jan 2003 15:11:47 GMT (146kb) Date (revised v3): Wed, 14 May 2003 12:49:35 GMT (146kb)
- The parton to hadron phase transition observed in Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon (1999)
- Hadronic yields and yield ratios observed in Pb+Pb collisions at the SPS energy of 158 GeV per nucleon are known to resemble a thermal equilibrium population at T=180 +/- 10 MeV, also observed in elementary e+ + e- to hadron data at LEP. We argue that this is the universal consequence of the QCD parton to hadron phase transition populating the maximum entropy state. This state is shown to survive the hadronic rescattering and expansion phase, freezing in right after hadronization due to the very rapid longitudinal and transverse expansion that is inferred from Bose-Einstein pion correlation analysis of central Pb+Pb collisions.
- The ALICE TPC, a large 3-dimensional tracking device with fast readout for ultra-high multiplicity events (2010)
- The design, construction, and commissioning of the ALICE Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) is described. It is the main device for pattern recognition, tracking, and identification of charged particles in the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. The TPC is cylindrical in shape with a volume close to 90 m3 and is operated in a 0.5 T solenoidal magnetic field parallel to its axis. In this paper we describe in detail the design considerations for this detector for operation in the extreme multiplicity environment of central Pb–Pb collisions at LHC energy. The implementation of the resulting requirements into hardware (field cage, read-out chambers, electronics), infrastructure (gas and cooling system, laser-calibration system), and software led to many technical innovations which are described along with a presentation of all the major components of the detector, as currently realized. We also report on the performance achieved after completion of the first round of stand-alone calibration runs and demonstrate results close to those specified in the TPC Technical Design Report.