- Medizin (9) (remove)
- Molecular monitoring of minimal residual disease in two patients with MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia and haploidentical transplantation after relapse (2012)
- This report describes the clinical courses of two acute myeloid leukemia patients. Both had MLL translocations, the first a t(10;11)(p11.2;q23) with MLL-AF10 and the second a t(11;19)(q23;p13.1) with MLL-ELL fusion. They achieved a clinical remission under conventional chemotherapy but relapsed shortly after end of therapy. Both had a history of invasive mycoses (one had possible pulmonary mycosis, one systemic candidiasis). Because no HLA-identical donor was available, a haploidentical transplantation was performed in both cases. Using a specially designed PCR method for the assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD), based on the quantitative detection of the individual chromosomal breakpoint in the MLL gene, all patients achieved complete and persistent molecular remission after transplantation. The immune reconstitution after transplantation is described in terms of total CD3+/CD4+, CD3+/CD8+, CD19+, and CD16+/CD56+ cell numbers over time. The KIR and HLA genotypes of donors and recipients are reported and the possibility of a KIR-mediated alloreactivity is discussed. This report illustrates that haploidentical transplantation may offer a chance of cure without chronic graft-versus-host disease in situations where no suitable HLA-identical donor is available even in a high-risk setting and shows the value of MRD monitoring in the pre- and posttransplant setting.
- Enhanced gene trapping in mouse embryonic stem cells (2008)
- Gene trapping is used to introduce insertional mutations into genes of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). It is performed with gene trap vectors that simultaneously mutate and report the expression of the endogenous gene at the site of insertion and provide a DNA tag for rapid identification of the disrupted gene. Gene traps have been employed worldwide to assemble libraries of mouse ESC lines harboring mutations in single genes, which can be used to make mutant mice. However, most of the employed gene trap vectors require gene expression for reporting a gene trap event and therefore genes that are poorly expressed may be under-represented in the existing libraries. To address this problem, we have developed a novel class of gene trap vectors that can induce gene expression at insertion sites, thereby bypassing the problem of intrinsic poor expression. We show here that the insertion of the osteopontin enhancer into several conventional gene trap vectors significantly increases the gene trapping efficiency in high-throughput screens and facilitates the recovery of poorly expressed genes.
- Assessment of liver fibrosis and associated risk factors in HIV-infected individuals using transient elastography and serum biomarkers (2012)
- Background: Liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is mostly attributable to co-infection with hepatitis B or C. The impact of other risk factors, including prolonged exposure to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of liver fibrosis and associated risk factors in HIV-infected individuals based on non-invasive fibrosis assessment using transient elastography (TE) and serum biomarkers (Fibrotest [FT]). Methods: In 202 consecutive HIV-infected individuals (159 men; mean age 47 ± 9 years; 35 with hepatitis-C-virus [HCV] co-infection), TE and FT were performed. Repeat TE examinations were conducted 1 and 2 years after study inclusion. Results: Significant liver fibrosis was present in 16% and 29% of patients, respectively, when assessed by TE (≥ 7.1 kPa) and FT (> 0.48). A combination of TE and FT predicted significant fibrosis in 8% of all patients (31% in HIV/HCV co-infected and 3% in HIV mono-infected individuals). Chronic ALT, AST and γ-GT elevation was present in 29%, 20% and 51% of all cART-exposed patients and in 19%, 8% and 45.5% of HIV mono-infected individuals. Overall, factors independently associated with significant fibrosis as assessed by TE (OR, 95% CI) were co-infection with HCV (7.29, 1.95-27.34), chronic AST (6.58, 1.30-33.25) and γ-GT (5.17, 1.56-17.08) elevation and time on dideoxynucleoside therapy (1.01, 1.00-1.02). In 68 HIV mono-infected individuals who had repeat TE examinations, TE values did not differ significantly during a median follow-up time of 24 months (median intra-patient changes at last TE examination relative to baseline: -0.2 kPa, p = 0.20). Conclusions: Chronic elevation of liver enzymes was observed in up to 45.5% of HIV mono-infected patients on cART. However, only a small subset had significant fibrosis as predicted by TE and FT. There was no evidence for fibrosis progression during follow-up TE examinations.
- "Denervation" of autonomous nervous system in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension by low-dose radiation: a case report with an unexpected outcome (2014)
- Vasointestinal peptide metabolism plays a key physiological role in multimodular levels of vasodilatory, smooth muscle cell proliferative, parenchymal, and inflammatory lung reactions. In animal studies, vasointestinal peptide relaxes isolated pulmonary arterial segments from several mammalian species in vitro and neutralizes the pulmonary vasoconstrictor effect of endothelin. In some animal models, it reduces pulmonary vascular resistance in vivo and in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. A 58-year-old woman presented with dyspnea and mild edema of the lower extremities. A bronchoscopy was performed without any suspicious findings suggesting a central tumor or other infiltrative disease. Endobronchial ultrasound revealed enlarged pulmonary arteries containing thrombi, a few enlarged lymph nodes, and enlarged mediastinal tissue anatomy with suspicion for mediastinal infiltration of a malignant process. We estimated that less than 10% of the peripheral vascular bed of the lung was involved in direct consolidated fibrosis as demonstrated in the left upper lobe apex. Further, direct involvement of fibrosis around the main stems of the pulmonary arteries was assumed to be low from positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. Assuming a positive influence of low-dose radiation, it was not expected that this could have reduced pulmonary vascular resistance by over two thirds of the initial result. However; it was noted that this patient had idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension mixed with "acute" (mediastinal) fibrosis which could have contributed to the unexpected success of reduction of pulmonary vascular resistance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, probably as a result of low-dose radiation to the pulmonary arterial main stems. The patient continues to have no specific complaints concerning her idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.
- The Rainbow Cohort: saquinavir/r is effective and well tolerated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients – 48-week results from Germany (2008)
- Poster presentation: Purpose of the study The aim of the Rainbow Cohort is to assess the tolerability and efficacy of initiating treatment with, or switching treatment to saquinavir (SQV) 500 mg film-coated tablet formulation. We present the final 48-week subgroup analysis of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients. ...
- Lipometabolic side-effects of three ritonavir-boosted doubleprotease inhibitor regimens without reverse transcriptase inhibitors (2008)
- Poster presentation: Purpose of the study To compare the lipometabolic profiles of three double-boosted protease inhibitor (PI) regimens at standard dose, containing saquinavir and ritonavir in combination with lopinavir (LOPSAQ), atazanavir (ATSAQ) or fosamprenavir (FOSAQ) in HIV-positive patients, treated without reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI). ...
- Once-daily saquinavir (SAQ)/ritonavir (RTV) (2000/100 mg) with abacavir/lamivudine (600/300 mg) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (245/300 mg) in naïve patients (2008)
- Poster presentation: Background In the past years, once-daily (QD) dosing of antiretroviral combination therapy has become an increasingly available treatment option for HIV-1+ patients. Methods Open label study in which HIV-1+ patients treated with SAQ/RTV (1000/100 mg BID) and two NRTIs with HIV-RNA-PCR < 50 copies/ml were switched to SAQ/RTV(2000/100 mg QD) with unchanged NRTI-backbone. CD4-cells, HIV-RNA-PCR, SAQ and RTV drug-levels and metabolic parameters were compared. Summary of results 17 patients (15 male, 42 years), median CD4 456 ± 139/micro l were included so far. The median follow-up time is 4 months. The HIV-RNA-PCR remained <50 copies/ml for all patients. Fasting metabolic parameters remained unchanged. The SAQ AUC 0–12 h were significantly higher when given QD vs. BID (median 29,400 vs. 18,500 ng*h/ml; p = 0.009), whereas the Cmin, Cmax and AUC was lower for RTV when given QD vs. BID (7,400 vs. 11,700 ng*h/ml; p = 0.02). Conclusion In this ongoing study SAQ/RTV (2000/100 mg QD) was well tolerated and demonstrated higher SAQ and lower RTV drug levels as compared to the BID dosing schedule. (Table 1 and Figure 1.)
- Antiretroviral tolerability and efficacy after switch to saquinavir in PI-experienced patients : 48-week analysis of the German Rainbow Cohort (2008)
- Poster presentation: Purpose of the study The aim of the Rainbow Cohort is to assess the tolerability and efficacy of initiating treatment with, or switching treatment to the saquinavir (SQV) 500 mg film-coated tablet formulation. We present the final 48-week subgroup analysis of PI-experienced, but SQV-naïve patients. ...
- Efficacy and safety of TDF/FTC-containing first-line HAART in clinical practice – 2-year data from the German Outpatient Cohort (2008)
- Poster presentation: Purpose of the study First-line HAART with tenofovir DF (TDF) and FTC in pivotal trials has been associated with high efficacy and good tolerability. However, real-life clinical practice often differs from clinical trials due to co-morbidities, co-infections, and less intensive clinical monitoring. To evaluate efficacy and safety of first-line HAART in a day-to-day setting, this Gilead-sponsored non-interventional cohort was established. Methods Between July 2005 and August 2006, 533 HIV-1 infected antiretroviral-naïve patients from 50 German centres enrolled in this non-interventional cohort. All patients were followed every 3 months for 3 years to monitor efficacy (viral load [VL], CD4), tolerability, renal safety, regimen changes and resistance profile. All patients received TDF+FTC as a single tablet (Truvada, TVD) in combination with either an NNRTI or PI/r as their first antiretroviral regimen. Summary of results As of June 2008, 2 years of therapy have been documented for 330/533 (62%) patients. At treatment initiation, 81% were male; median age was 39 years; clinical AIDS diagnosis was documented in 22%; 47% started therapy with CD4 <200 cells/mm3. TVD was combined with an NNRTI (43%) or a PI/r (57%). After 24 months, in an As-Treated (AT) analysis, 85% patients achieved a VL <50 copies/ml (VL <500 copies/ml: 97%), median CD4 count increased from 217 at baseline to 450 cells/mm3 (IQR: 325–608). Truvada showed a good safety profile; 76 adverse events (AEs) of any grade were reported in 66/533 patients (12%); six of these were judged serious. Fourteen (2.6%) patients discontinued TVD due to AEs. Renal abnormalities of any grade were reported in 10 patients (1.9%). Virological failure was documented in nine patients, of which eight were genotyped; M184V/I was detected in three, K65R in two patients. Conclusion During 2 years of follow-up, the overall safety of TVD was good; renal AEs of any grade were reported in 1.9% of patients. K65R was detected in two patients. First-line HAART with TVD plus an NNRTI or PI/r in clinical practice showed comparable efficacy to that observed in controlled clinical trials.