Year of publication
- 2005 (8) (remove)
- English (8) (remove)
- MALDI (1)
- Membrantransport ; Membranproteine ; Stofftransport <Biologie> ; Elektronenmikroskopie ; Kristallisation ; Kristallographie ; Mikroskopie (1)
- NADH-Dehydrogenase <Ubichinon> (1)
- NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (1)
- Protein Expression ; Purification (1)
- Retroviren ; Matrixproteine (1)
- Thiosulfat Sulfurtransferase (1)
- Yarrowia lipolytica (1)
- accessory subunit (1)
- Structural studies of membrane transport proteins (2005)
- My graduate thesis is on the “ Structural studies of membrane transport proteins”. Transporters are membrane proteins that have multiple membrane-spanning a-helices. They are dynamic and diverse proteins, undergoing a large conformational change and transporting wide range of susbtrates. Based on their energy source they can be classified into primary and secondary transport systems. Primary transport systems are driven by the use of chemical (ATP) or light energy, while secondary transporters utilize ion gradients to transport substrates. I began my PhD dissertation on secondary transporters by two-dimensional crystallization and electron crystallographic analysis and recently my focus also has shifted towards 3D crystallization. The following projects constitute my PhD thesis: 1) 2D crystallization of MjNhaP1 and pH induced structural change: MjNhaP1, a Na+/H+ antiporter that is regulated by pH has been implicated in homeostasis of H+ and Na+ in Methanococcus jannaschii, a hyperthermophilic archaeon that grows optimally at 85°C. MjNhaP1 was cloned and expressed in E. coli. Two-dimensional crystals were obtained from purified protein at pH4. Electron cryo-microscopy yielded an 8Å projection map. The map of MjNhaP1 shows elongated densities in the centre of the dimer and a cluster of density peaks on either side of the dimer core, indicative of a bundle of 4-6 membrane-spanning helices. The effect of pH on the structure of MjNhaP1was studied in situ in 2D crystals revealing a major change in density within the helix bundle relative to the dimer interface. This change occurred at pH6 and above. The two conformations at low and high pH most likely represent the closed and open states of the antiporter, respectively. This is the first instance where a conformational change associated with the regulation of a secondary transporter appears to map structurally. Reconstruction of 3D map and high-resolution structure by x-ray crystallography would be necessary to understand the mechanism of ion transport and regulation by pH. 2) 2D crystallization of Proline transporter: Proline transporter (PutP) from E.coli belongs the sodium-solute symporter family that includes disease related sodium dependent glucose and iodide transporter in humans. Sodium and proline are co-transported with a stoichiometry of 1:1. Purified PutP was reconstituted to yield 2D crystals that were hexagonal in nature. The 2D crystals had tendency to stack indicating their willingness to form 3D crystals. A projection map of PutP from negatively stained crystals showed trimeric arrangement of protein. Other members of the SSF family have been shown to be monomers. My analysis of oligomeric state of PutP in detergent by blue native gel indicates a monomer in detergent solution. It is likely that PutP can function as a monomer but at higher concentration and in lipid bilayer it tends to form trimer. 3) Oligomeric state and crystallization of carnitine transporter from E.coli: E.coli carnitine transporter (CaiT) belongs to the BCCT (Betaine, Carnitine and Choline) superfamily that transports molecules with quaternary amine groups. CaiT is predicted to span the membrane 12 times and acts as a L-carnitine/g-butyrobetaine exchanger. Unlike other members in this transporter family, it does not require an ion gradient and does not respond to osmotic stress. Over-expression of the protein yielded ~2mg of protein/L of culture. The structure and oligomeric state of the protein were analyzed in detergent and lipid bilayers. Blue native gel electrophoresis indicated that CaiT was a trimer in detergent solution. Gel filtration and cross-linking studies further support this. Reconstitution of CaiT into lipid bilayers resulted in 2D crystals. Analysis of negatively stained 2D crystals confirmed that CaiT is a trimer in the membrane. Initial 3D crystallization trials have been successful and currently, the crystals diffract to 6Å and are being improved. 4) Monomeric porin OmpG: OmpG is a bacterial outer membrane b-barrel protein. It is monomeric and its size (33kDa) places it as a prime candidate for a structural solution, using the recently developed method of solid state NMR (work in collaboration with Prof.Hartmut Oskinat, FMP, Berlin). A long-term aim would be to study porins as templates for designing nanopores, for DNA sequencing and identification. I have expressed OmpG in inclusion bodies and refolded at an efficiency of >90% into a functional form using detergent. OmpG was then crystallized by 2D crystallization yielding an 8Å projection map whose structure was similar to native protein. In addition, these crystals were used for structure determination by solid state NMR. An initial spectrum of heavy isotopically labeled OmpG has allowed identification of specific amino acid residues including threonine and proline. Additionally, I obtained 3D crystals in detergent that diffract to 5.5Å and are being improved.
- Accessory subunits of complex I from Yarrowia lipolytica (2005)
- Mitochondial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) the largest multiprotein enzyme of the respiratory chain, catalyses the transfer of two electrons from NADH to ubiquinone, coupled to the translocation of four protons across the membrane. In addition to the 14 strictly conserved central subunits it contains a variable number of accessory subunits. At present, the best characterized enzyme is complex I from bovine heart with a molecular mass of about 980 kDa and 32 accessory proteins. In this study, the subunit composition of mitochondrial complex I from the aerobic yeast Y. lipolytica has been analysed by a combination of proteomic and genomic approaches. The sequences of 37 complex I subunits were identified. The sum of their individual molecular masses (about 930 kDa) was consistent with the native molecular weight of approximately 900 kDa for Y. lipolytica complex I obtained by BN-PAGE. A genomic analysis with Y. lipolytica and other eukaryotic databases to search for homologues of complex I subunits revealed 31 conserved proteins among the examined species. A novel protein named “X” was found in purified Y. lipolytica complex I by MALDI-MS. This protein exhibits homology to the thiosulfate sulfurtransferase enzyme referred to as rhodanese. The finding of a rhodanese-like protein in isolated complex I of Y. lipolytica allows to assume a special regulatory mechanism of complex I activity through control of the status of its iron-sulfur clusters. The second part of this study was aimed at investigating the possible role of one of these extra subunits, 39 kDa (NUEM) subunit which is related to the SDRs-enzyme family. The members of this family function in different redox and isomerization reactions and contain a conserved NAD(P)H-binding site. It was proposed that the 39 kDa subunit may be involved in a biosynthetic pathway, but the role of this subunit in complex I is unknown. In contrast to the situation in N. crassa, deletion of the 39 kDa encoding gene in Y. lipolytica led to the absence of fully assembled complex I. This result might indicate a different pathway of complex I assembly in both organisms. Several site-directed mutations were generated in the nucleotide binding motif. These had either no effect on enzyme activity and NADPH binding, or prevented complex I assembly. Mutations of arginine-65 that is located at the end of the second b-strand and responsible for selective interaction with the 2’-phosphate group of NADPH retained complex I activity in mitochondrial membranes but the affinity for the cofactor was markedly decreased. Purification of complex I from mutants resulted in decrease or loss of ubiquinone reductase activity. It is very likely that replacement of R65 not only led to a decrease in affinity for NADPH but also caused instability of the enzyme due to steric changes in the 39 kDa subunit. These data indicate that NADPH bound to the 39 kDa subunit (NUEM) is not essential for complex I activity, but probably involved in complex I assembly in Y. lipolytica.
- Biochemical, structural and functional characterization of diheme-containing quinol:fumarate reductases : the role of heme propionates and the enzymes from pathogenic e-proteobacteria (2005)
- The quinol:fumarate reductase (QFR) is the terminal reductase of anaerobic fumarate respiration, the most commonly occurring type of anaerobic respiration. This membrane protein complex couples the oxidation of menaquinol to menaquinone to the reduction of fumarate to succinate. The three-dimensional crystal structure of the QFR from Wolinella succinogenes has previoulsy been solved at 2.2 Å resolution. Although the diheme-containing QFR from W. succinogenes is known to catalyze an electroneutral process, structural and functional characterization of parental and variant enzymes has revealed active site locations which indicate electrogenic catalysis across the membrane. A solution to this apparent controversy was proposed with the so-called “Epathway hypothesis”. According to this, transmembrane electron transfer via the heme groups is strictly coupled to a parallel, compensatory transfer of protons via a transiently established pathway, which is inactive in the oxidized state of the enzyme. Proposed constituents of the E-pathway are the side chain of Glu C180, and the ring C propionate of the distal heme. Previous experimental evidence strongly supports such a role for the former constituent. One aim of this thesis is to investigate by a combination of specific 13C-heme propionate labeling and FTIR difference spectroscopy whether the ring C propionate of the distal heme is involved in redox-coupled proton transfer in the QFR from W. succinogenes. In addition to W. succinogenes, the primary structures of the QFR enzymes of two other e- proteobacteria are known. These are Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori, which unlike W. succinogenes are human pathogens. The QFR from H. pylori has previously been established to be a potential drug target, and the same is likely for the QFR from C. jejuni. The two pathogenic species colonize mucosal surfaces causing several diseases. The possibility of studying these QFRs from these bacteria and creating more efficient drugs specifically active for this enzyme depends substantially on the availability of large amounts of high-quality protein. Further, biochemical and structural studies on QFR enzymes from e- proteobacteria species other than W. succinogenes can be valuable to enlighten new aspects or corroborate the current understanding of this class of membrane proteins.
- Electrogenic substrate binding to the Na +/proline transporter of E. coli (2005)
- The Na+/proline transporter of E. Coli (PutP) is responsible for the uptake of proline which is subsequently used not only as a carbon and nitrogen source and a constituent of proteins but also as a particularly effective osmoprotectant. However, for a long time there was little known about the single steps in the reaction cycle of this transporter and only few details about its structure-function relationship are available. Aim of the present work was to achieve a deeper understanding about the kinetic properties of the Na+/proline transporter and to get insights into the structure-function relationship of the substrate binding. To answer these questions different techniques were used. By using the novel SSM technique combining the preparation of PutP proteoliposomes it was possible to demonstrate for the first time the electrogenic substrate binding to PutP transporter. Due to rapid solution exchange measurements on the SSM it was additionally possible to obtain time resolved information about the kinetic details of the cytoplasmic substrate binding sites which were not available by previous steady state and equilibrium binding measurements. Pre-steady-state charge translocation was observed after rapid addition of one or both of the cosubstrates Na+ and/or proline to the PutP-WT proteoliposomes adsorbed on the SSM. Thereby it was possible to link the observed electrical signals with the binding activity of PutP. The observed Na+ and/or proline induced charge displacement were assigned to an electrogenic Na+ and/or proline binding process at the cytoplasmic face of the enzyme with a rate constant of k > 50 s-1 proceeding the rate limiting step of the reaction cycle. Furthermore, based on the kinetic analysis of the electrical signals obtained from the measurements of PutP on SSM, the following characteristics of the substrates binding in PutP were deduced: (1) both Na+ and proline can bind individually to the transporter. Under physiological conditions, an ordered binding mechanism prevails; while at sufficiently high concentrations, each substrate can bind in the absence of the other; (2) substrate binding is electrogenic not only for Na+, but also for the uncharged cosubstrate proline. The charge displacement associated with Na+ binding and proline binding is of comparable size and independent of the presence of the respective cosubstrate. In addition, it was concluded that Na+ accesses its binding site through a high-field access channel resulting in a charge translocation, whereas the binding of the electroneutral proline induces a conformation alteration involving the displacement of charged amino acid residue(s) of the protein; (3) Na+ and proline binding sites interact cooperatively with each other by increasing the affinity and/or the speed of binding of the respective cosubstrate; (4) proline binding proceeds in a two step process: low affinity (~ 0.9 mM) electroneutral substrate binding followed by a nearly irreversible electrogenic conformational transition; (5) membrane impermeable PCMBS inhibits both Na+ and proline binding to the inside-out orientated PutP transporter, indicating that rather than selectively blocking a specific binding site, PCMBS probably locks the enzyme in an inactive state. The possible targets for this SH-reagent are cysteines 281 and 344 located close to the cytoplasmic surface of the protein. Beyond it, transient electrical currents of PutP were also observed on the BLM after rapid addition of proline in the presence of Na+. This was possible by combining the conventional BLM technique with high-speed flash-photolysis of caged-proline. Indeed the signals on the BLM indicate the detection of a different underlying reaction process in comparison to the data achieved by the SSM technique. This has paved the way for supplemental information about the reaction cycle since it was possible to assign the flash-photolysis BLM signals to the proline binding step followed by the internalization of Na+ and proline into the liposome. Thereby it was found, that the presence of Na+ is indispensable and the time constant for the process is ~ 63 ms. Moreover, structure-function information about the Na+ and proline binding sites of PutP was obtained by investigating the functionally important amino acid residues Asp55, Gly63 and Asp187 with site-directed mutagenesis and the combined SSM technique. One finding is that the mutated proteins PutP-D55C and PutP-G63C showed no activity on the SSM. Therefore, it can be assumed that either both Asp55 and Gly63 are crucial for the structure of PutP protein, or they are located at or close to the Na+ and proline binding sites. Furthermore, the results obtained from PutP-D187N and PutP-D187C mutants on SSM suggest that Asp187 of PutP is likely to be involved in the Na+ binding at the cytoplasmic side of the backward running carrier. Taken together the results of the present work have substantially broadened the known picture of the Na+/proline transporter PutP thereby several steps of the reaction cycle were elucidated, and moreover, valuable insights into the structure-function relationship of the transporter have become available.
- Electrophysiological and spectroscopical characterization of the Na,K-ATPase (2005)
- The technique of site-specific fluorescence labelling with Tetramethylrhodaminemaleimide (TMRM) in combination with two electrode voltage-clamp technique (TEVC), an approach that has been named voltage clamp fluorometry (VCF), has been used in this work to study the Na,K-ATPase. The TMRM dye has the ability to attach covalently to cysteine residues and it responds to changes in the hydrophobicity of its local environment. We exploited this property using a construct of the Na-pump in which the native, extracellularly accessible cysteines were removed and cysteine residues were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis in specific positions of the Na-pump. In this way it was possible to detect site-specific conformational rearrangements of the Na-pump in a time-resolved fashion within a native membrane environment. In particular this technique allows to resolve reactions with low electrogenicity that cannot be satisfactorily analyzed with purely electrophysiological techniques and to identify the conformations of the enzyme under specific ionic composition of the measuring buffers. We used VCF to study the influence that several cations like Na+, K+, NMG+, TEA+ and BTEA+ exert on the distribution of the Na,K-ATPase between several enzymatic intermediates and on some of the reactions related to cation transport. To this end we utilized the mutants N790C in the loop M5-M6 and the mutant E307C, T309C, L311C and E312C in the loop M3-M4. From the correspondence of the fluorescence changes with the activation and inhibition of pumping current, by K+ and ouabain respectively, and from the fact that in Na+/Na+ exchange conditions the voltage distribution of charge movement and fluorescence changes evoked by voltage jumps are in reasonable agreement we conclude that through the fluorescence signals measured from these mutants, we can indeed monitor conformational changes linked to transport activity of the enzyme. For the mutants N790 and L311, it was found that the Na+ dependence of the amplitude and kinetics of the fluorescence signal associated with the E1P-E2P transition is in agreement with the prediction of an access channel model describing the regulation of the access of extracellular Na+ to its binding site. In particular for the mutants E307 and T309 it was found that in Na+/Na+ exchange conditions, the conformational change tracked by the fluorescence was much slower than the charge relaxation at hyperpolarized potentials while the kinetics was very similar at depolarized potentials. This implies that at hyperpolarized potentials the conformational change connected to the E1P-E2P transition does not give a large contribution to the electrogenicity of the process which is also consistent with the access channel model. On the mutant N790C it was found that the external pH does not seem to have any effect on the E1P-E2P equilibrium even if it seems to modulate the fluorescence quantum yield of the dye. Fluorescence quenching experiments with iodide and D2O indicate that at hyperpolarized potentials the local environment of the mutant N790C, experiences a small change in the accessibility to water without major changes in the local electrostatic field ...
- Funktionelle und strukturelle Untersuchungen an Matrix-Proteinen aus Retroviren (2005)
- The N-terminal domain (matrix protein or MA) of a retroviral Gag polyprotein precursor plays a critical role in several stages of the retrovirus life cycle. MA is involved in the effective membrane targeting, assembly and release of the immature viral particles from the infected cell. In order to understand the structural basis of these functions, the full length MA from Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMuLV) was purified and the solution structure of the MA MoMuLV was determined by means of heteronuclear high-resolution NMR spectroscopy and compared with that of the X-ray diffraction analysis as well as with the structures of several MA proteins from geterologous viruses. Structural features were also obtained from CD spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, sedimentation velocity, differential scanning calorimetry and other methods. It was found that the MA MoMuLV globular core (residues 8-98) is comprised of 7 well-defined helices (five alpha-helices and two 310 helices), with the general fold typical for MA proteins from other retroviral species. The N-terminus (residues Met1-Leu7) and the C-terminal proline-rich part (residues Pro103-Tyr131) are not structured in solution. Although MA MoMuLV has a low sequence identity compared with other matrix proteins for which the three-dimensional structure is known, it was shown that its overall topology and pattern of secondary structural units is similar to other retroviral matrix proteins. The monomeric state is observed for the correctly folded MA MoMuLV in a variety of external conditions and protein concentrations, indicating that virion assembly starts with the plasma membrane targeting of the nascent Gag precursor. The denaturation of MA MoMuLV is irreversible and is connected with protein aggregation. For Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MoMuLV) a proteolytic processing of the R-peptide (last 16 amino acids from the C-terminus of the Envelope protein (Env)) has been described as a second mode of fusion and activation preceding the receptor contact between the viral particle and the cellular membrane. An interaction between the R-peptide and MA MoMuLV has been proposed, since the R-peptide and MA are localized at the inner part of the membrane. Therefore the interaction between 15N labelled purified MA MoMuLV and synthesized R-peptide has been investigated using high-resolution NMR. It was found that in water solution MA MoMuLV and R-peptide do not form a tight complex, but in a mature virion in the presence of membranes or other protein factors it might be possible. In the case of HIV-1 the cytoplasmic part (EnvC) of the Env protein is much longer than in other retroviruses and again as for MoMuLV little is known about the interaction between EnvC and HIV MA. Hence, the full length HIV MA, and the last 150 amino acids from HIV Env have been subcloned with suitable expression vectors, purified and analysed by native gel electrophoresis, a pull down assay and by high resolution NMR for the purpose to detect the complex formation of EnvC and HIV MA. Finally, after all those experiments, it was found that a stable complex is not formed, but a weak interaction between the two proteins can not be excluded.
- The interaction of the cytochrome bc 1 complex with its substrate cytochrome c : high resolution structure and implications for transient binding (2005)
- Structure of NhaA, a Na +/H + antiporter from Escherichia coli and insights into mechanism of action and regulation by pH (2005)
- Sodium proton antiporters are ubiquitous membrane proteins found in the cytoplasmic and organelle membranes of cells of many different origins, including plants, animals and microorganisms. They are involved in cell energetics, and play primary roles in the homeostasis of intracellular pH, cellular Na+ content and cell volume. Adaptation to high salinity and/or extreme pH in plants and bacteria or in human heart muscles requires the action of such Na+/H+ antiporters. NhaA is the essential Na+/H+ antiporter for pH and Na+ homeostasis (at alkaline pH) in Escherichia coli and many other enterobacteria. NhaA is an electrogenic Na+/H+ antiporter that exchanges 2H+ for 1Na+ (or Li+). NhaA shares with many other prokaryotic and eukaryotic antiporters a very strong dependence on pH. In order to achieve three-dimensional structure of NhaA, the previously described NhaA protein preparation was modified: (i) the wild type bacterial strain (TA16) used for homologous over-expression of NhaA was replaced with a delta nhaA strain (RK20). As a result, the purity and homogeneity of the sample was significantly improved; (ii) the previously two-step purification procedure was shortened to a single step affinity chromatography purification; (iii) a wide-range screening of crystallisation conditions, more than 20,000, was performed; (iv) a Seleno-L-methionine (SeMet) NhaA derivative was produced in order to solve the phases during structure determination. In parallel, attempts of production and crystallisation of co-complexes composed of NhaA and antibody fragments have been made. Four different monoclonal antibodies were available against NhaA. Selected antibody fragments were produced and the stability of the complex analysed. Here, the crystal structure of the pH down-regulated secondary transporter NhaA of Escherichia coli is presented at 3.45 Å resolution. A negatively charged ion funnel opens to the cytoplasm and ends in the middle of the membrane at the putative ion-binding site. There, a unique assembly of two pairs of short helices connected by crossed, extended chains creates a balanced electrostatic environment. A possible mechanism is proposed: the binding of charged substrates causes electric imbalance inducing movements, which allow for a rapid alternating access mechanism. This ion exchange machinery is regulated by a conformational change elicited by a pH signal perceived at the cytoplasmic funnel entry. The structure represents a novel fold that provides two major insights: it reveals the structural basis for the mechanism of Na+/H+ exchange and its unique regulation by pH in NhaA and in many other similar antiporters. Furthermore, it is also important for the understanding of the architecture of membrane proteins in general. However, although many aspects of the ion-translocation mechanism and pH regulation are clarified by the NhaA structure, higher resolution structures with Li+ or Na+ bound are required for understanding the ligand binding and the translocation mechanism at the atomic level. The alkaline pH-induced conformation is essential to further understand the pH-control and proton access to the binding site.