- Therapy of hemorrhagic shock with following resuscitation-induced liver injury : in vivo study (2010)
- Shock resulting from life-threatening blood-loss (hemorrhagic shock) represents the most frequent injury pattern after a traumatic insult. Hemorrhagic shock induces inflammatory changes, characterized by highly complex pathophysiological pathways often resulting in death. In this study, we establish an experimental in vivo model of H/R in rats and study the mechanisms which determine the hepatic injury after H/R. Furthermore, we show that hemorrhagic shock with following resuscitation is accompanied with release of systemic and local pro-inflammatory mediators, increased infiltration of hepatic neutrophils in the liver, increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, enhanced cell death of both types, apoptosis and necrosis, conspicuous cytoskeletal rearrangements, loss of hepatic integrity and finally high general mortality rates, up to 80%. In addition, the effects of two potential therapeutic interventions to prevent the H/R induced liver injury are explored in a model of H/R in rats. First, the role of JNK and its inhibition by D-JNKI-1 in preservation of hepatic integrity following H/R was analyzed. Second, we investigated the potential of simvastatin to prevent the disturbed inflammatory response and hepatic injury after H/R. The effects of both therapeutic interventions were studied by looking at several inflammatory parameters, markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress, cytoskeleton integrity, microcirculatory parameters, underlying signaling cascades, liver damage and mortality. Highly specific blockade of JNK with the potent, inhibitory peptide D-JNKI-1 revealed the crucial role of the JNK signaling pathway in the H/R induced pathophysiology and strong protective effects of DJNKI- 1 in H/R induced liver injury, when the peptide was applied before and even after hemorrhagic shock. The other therapeutic intervention tested in this study was the use of simvastatin which also revealed protective effects after H/R and even a remarkable improvement in survival after H/R. We show that H/R induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hepatic PMNL infiltration, increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, apoptosis and necrosis can be diminished by treatment with D-JNKI-1 but also with simvastatin in vivo. Furthermore, simvastatin reduces H/R induced cytoskelatal rearrangements, loss of liver integrity and the mortality rate after H/R. The key pathway which underlies these beneficial effects of simvastatin is the Rho kinase pathway. Identification of both mechanisms as well as the effectiveness of both substances provide new insights in the close interaction between hypoxia and the immune system and present a promising basis for the anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective treatment after H/R.