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- Role of rho GTPases in migration of stem and progenitor cells (2005)
- Stem cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple tissues are important in medicine to reconstitute the hematopoietic system after myelo-ablative chemo- or radiotherapy. In the present situation, adult stem cells such as Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are used for therapeutic purposes. For tissue regeneration and tissue constitution, engraftment of transplanted stem cells is a necessary feature. However, in many instances, the transplanted stem cells reach the tissues with low efficiency. Considering the three-step model of leukocyte extravasation by Springer et al, the rolling, adhesion and transmigration form the three major steps for the transplanted stem cells to enter the desired tissues. One of the molecular switches reported to be involved in these mechanisms are the Rho family GTPases. The present study investigates the role of Rho GTPases in adhesion and migration of stem and progenitor cells. Chemotactic and chemokinetic migration assays, transendothelial migration assays, migration of cells under shear stress, microinjection, retroviral and lentiviral gene transfer methods, oligonucleotide microarray analysis and pull down assays were employed in this study for the elucidation of Rho GTPase involvement in migration and adhesion of stem and progenitor cells. The transmigration assay used for the migration determination of the adherent cell type, MSC, was optimized for the efficient and effective assessment of the migrating cells. The involvement of Rho was found to be critical for stem and progenitor cell migration where inactivation of Rho by C2I-C3 transferase toxin and/or overexpression of C3 transferase cDNA increased the migration rate of Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) and MSC. Moreover, modulation of Rho caused predictable cytoskeletal and morphological changes in MSC. Assessment of Rho GTPase involvement in the interacting partner, the endothelial cells during stem cell migration, revealed that active Rho expression induced E-selectin expression. The increased levels of E-selectin were functionally confirmed by the increased adhesion of progenitor cells (HPC) to the Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) layer. Moreover, inhibition of Rac in the migrating endothelial progenitor cells (eEPC) increased their adhesion to HUVEC correlating with the increased percentage expression of cell surface receptor, CD44 in Rac inactivated eEPC. In conclusion, this study shows that Rho GTPases control the adhesion and migration of stem and progenitor cells, HPC and MSC. Rho inhibition drives the cells to migrate in the blood vessels. The substantial increase in the level of active Rho in endothelial layer, manifested by the E-selectin surface expression assists the better adhesion of stem and progenitor cells to the endothelial layer. Serum factors and growth factors in the physiological system influence the Rho GTPase expression in both migrating stem cells and the barrier endothelial cells. Thus, specific modulation of Rho GTPases in the transplanted stem and progenitor cells could be an interesting tool to improve the migration and homing processes of stem cells for cellular therapy in future.