- On-line reconstruction algorithms for the CBM and ALICE experiments (2013)
- This thesis presents various algorithms which have been developed for on-line event reconstruction in the CBM experiment at GSI, Darmstadt and the ALICE experiment at CERN, Geneve. Despite the fact that the experiments are different — CBM is a fixed target experiment with forward geometry, while ALICE has a typical collider geometry — they share common aspects when reconstruction is concerned. The thesis describes: — general modifications to the Kalman filter method, which allows one to accelerate, to improve, and to simplify existing fit algorithms; — developed algorithms for track fit in CBM and ALICE experiment, including a new method for track extrapolation in non-homogeneous magnetic field. — developed algorithms for primary and secondary vertex fit in the both experiments. In particular, a new method of reconstruction of decayed particles is presented. — developed parallel algorithm for the on-line tracking in the CBM experiment. — developed parallel algorithm for the on-line tracking in High Level Trigger of the ALICE experiment. — the realisation of the track finders on modern hardware, such as SIMD CPU registers and GPU accelerators. All the presented methods have been developed by or with the direct participation of the author.
- Commissioning of the ALICE High-Level Trigger (2012)
- A new era in experimental nuclear physics has begun with the start-up of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and its dedicated heavy-ion detector system ALICE. Measuring the highest energy density ever produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions, the detector has been designed to study the properties of the created hot and dense medium, assumed to be a Quark-Gluon Plasma. Comprised of 18 high granularity sub-detectors, ALICE delivers data from a few million electronic channels of proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions. The produced data volume can reach up to 26 GByte/s for central Pb–Pb collisions at design luminosity of L = 1027 cm−2 s−1 , challenging not only the data storage, but also the physics analysis. A High-Level Trigger (HLT) has been built and commissioned to reduce that amount of data to a storable value prior to archiving with the means of data filtering and compression without the loss of physics information. Implemented as a large high performance compute cluster, the HLT is able to perform a full reconstruction of all events at the time of data-taking, which allows to trigger, based on the information of a complete event. Rare physics probes, with high transverse momentum, can be identified and selected to enhance the overall physics reach of the experiment. The commissioning of the HLT is at the center of this thesis. Being deeply embedded in the ALICE data path and, therefore, interfacing all other ALICE subsystems, this commissioning imposed not only a major challenge, but also a massive coordination effort, which was completed with the first proton-proton collisions reconstructed by the HLT. Furthermore, this thesis is completed with the study and implementation of on-line high transverse momentum triggers.
- Conceptual design of an ALICE Tier-2 centre integrated into a multi-purpose computing facility (2012)
- This thesis discusses the issues and challenges associated with the design and operation of a data analysis facility for a high-energy physics experiment at a multi-purpose computing centre. At the spotlight is a Tier-2 centre of the distributed computing model of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The design steps, examined in the thesis, include analysis and optimization of the I/O access patterns of the user workload, integration of the storage resources, and development of the techniques for effective system administration and operation of the facility in a shared computing environment. A number of I/O access performance issues on multiple levels of the I/O subsystem, introduced by utilization of hard disks for data storage, have been addressed by the means of exhaustive benchmarking and thorough analysis of the I/O of the user applications in the ALICE software framework. Defining the set of requirements to the storage system, describing the potential performance bottlenecks and single points of failure and examining possible ways to avoid them allows one to develop guidelines for selecting the way how to integrate the storage resources. The solution, how to preserve a specific software stack for the experiment in a shared environment, is presented along with its effects on the user workload performance. The proposal for a flexible model to deploy and operate the ALICE Tier-2 infrastructure and applications in a virtual environment through adoption of the cloud computing technology and the 'Infrastructure as Code' concept completes the thesis. Scientific software applications can be efficiently computed in a virtual environment, and there is an urgent need to adapt the infrastructure for effective usage of cloud resources.