## Universitätspublikationen

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- Modelling ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions with the quark Molecular Dynamics qMD (2005)
- This thesis presents a model for the dynamical description of deconfined quark matter created in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, treating quarks and antiquarks as classical point particles subject to a colour-dependent, Cornell-type potential interaction. The model provides a dynamical handle for hadronization via the recombination of quarks and antiquarks in colour neutral clusters. Gluons are not included explicitly in the model,but are described in an effective manner by the means of the potential interaction. The model includes four different quark flavours (up, down, strange and charm) and uses current masses for the quarks. The dynamical evolution of a system of colour charges subject to the Hamiltonian equations of motion of the model yields the formation of colour neutral clusters of quarks and antiquarks, which are subject only to a small remaining interaction, the strong interquark potential notwithstanding. These clusters can be mapped onto hadrons and hadronic resonances. Thus, the model allows a dynamical description of quarks degrees of freedom in heavy ion collisions, including a recombination scheme for hadronization. The thermal properties of the model turn pout to be very satisfying. The model shows a transition from a confining phase to a deconfined phase with rising temperature, going hand in hand with a softest point in the equation of state and a rise of energy density and pressure to the Stefan-Boltzmann limit of a gas of quarks and antiquarks. Moreover, the potential interaction is screened in the deconfined phase. For the dynamical description of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collision, the qMD model is coupled to UrQMD as a generator for its initial conditions. In this way, a fully dynamical description of the expansion and hadronization of the fireball created in such collisions can be achieved. Non-equilibrium aspects of the expansion dynamics and hadronization by recombination of quarks and antiquarks are discussed in detail, and a comparison with experimental data of collisions at the CERN-SPS is presented. The big advantage of the qMD model is the possibility to study cluster formation, including exotic clusters, and fluctuations in a dynamical manner. As an example, event-by-event fluctuations in electric charge are studied. Such fluctuations have been proposed as a clear criterion to distinguish a deconfined system from a hadrons gas. However, experimental data show hadron gas fluctuation measures even at RHIC, where deconfinement is taken for granted. We will see how the dynamics of quark recombination washes out the quark-gluon plasma signal in the fluctuation criterion. Moreover, we will discuss briefly the problem of entropy at recombination. In a second application, the formation of exotic hadronic clusters, larger than usual mesons and baryons, is studied. Such clusters could provide new measures for the thermalization and homogenization of a deconfined gas of colour charges. Moreover, number estimates for exotic clusters from recombination are considerably lower than corresponding predictions from thermal models, providing a clear difference between statistical hadronization and hadronization via quark recombination. A detailed analysis is provided for pentaquark candidates such as the Theta-Plus. It turns out that the distribution of exotic states over strangeness, isospin, and spin could provide a sensitive measure for thermalization and decorrelation in the deconfined quark phase, if it could be measured.

- Thermal photons as a measure for the rapidity dependence of the temperature (1995)
- The rapidity distribution of thermal photons produced in Pb+Pb collisions at CERN-SPS energies is calculated within scaling and three- fluid hydrodynamics. It is shown that these scenarios lead to very different rapidity spectra. A measurement of the rapidity dependence of photon radiation can give cleaner insight into the reaction dynamics than pion spectra, especially into the rapidity dependence of the temperature.

- A Stopped delta-matter source in heavy ion collisions at 10-GeV/N? (1994)
- We predict the formation of highly dense baryon-rich resonance matter in Au+Au collisions at AGS energies. The final pion yields show observable signs for resonance matter. The Delta1232 resonance is predicted to be the dominant source for pions of small transverse momenta. Rescattering e ects consecutive excitation and deexcitation of Delta's lead to a long apparent life- time (> 10 fm/c) and rather large volumina (several 100 fm3) of the Delta-matter state. Heavier baryon resonances prove to be crucial for reaction dynamics and particle production at AGS.

- Pion and thermal photon spectra as a possible signal for a phase transition (2005)
- We calculate thermal photon and neutral pion spectra in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions in the framework of three-fluid hydrodynamics. Both spectra are quite sensitive to the equation of state used. In particular, within our model, recent data for S + Au at 200 AGeV can only be understood if a scenario with a phase transition (possibly to a quark-gluon plasma) is assumed. Results for Au+Au at 11 AGeV and Pb + Pb at 160 AGeV are also presented.

- Monte Carlo model for multiparticle production at ultrarelativistic energies (1994)
- The Monte Carlo parton string model for multiparticle production in hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies is described. An adequate choice of the parameters in the model gives the possibility of recovering the main results of the dual parton model, with the advantage of treating both hadron and nuclear interactions on the same footing, reducing them to interactions between partons. Also the possibility of considering both soft and hard parton interactions is introduced.

- Nucleus-nucleus collisions at highest energies (1996)
- The microscopic phasespace approach URQMD is used to investigate the stopping power and particle production in heavy systems at SPS and RHIC energies. We find no gap in the baryon rapidity distribution even at RHIC. For CERN energies URQMD shows a pile up of baryons and a supression of multi-nucleon clusters at midrapidity.

- Phase transition of a finite quark-gluon plasma (1997)
- The deconfinement transition region between hadronic matter and quark-gluon plasma is studied for finite volumes. Assuming simple model equations of state and a first order phase transition, we find that fluctuations in finite volumes hinder a sharp separation between the two phases around the critical temperature, leading to a rounding of the phase transition. For reaction volumes expected in heavy ion experiments, the softening of the equation of state is reduced considerably. This is especially true when the requirement of exact color-singletness is included in the QGP equation of state.

- Chemical freezeout in relativistic A+A collisions: is it close to the QGP? (1997)
- Preliminary experimental data for particle number ratios in the collisions of Au+Au at the BNL AGS (11A GeV/c) and Pb+Pb at the CERN SPS (160A GeV/c) are analyzed in a thermodynamically consistent hadron gas model with excluded volume. Large values of temperature, T = 140 185 MeV, and baryonic chemical potential, µb = 590 270 MeV, close to the boundary of the quark-gluon plasma phase are found from fitting the data. This seems to indicate that the energy density at the chemical freezeout is tremendous which would be indeed the case for the point-like hadrons. However, a self-consistent treatment of the van der Waals excluded volume reveals much smaller energy densities which are very far below a lowest limit estimate of the quark-gluon plasma energy density. PACS number(s): 25.75.-q, 24.10.Pa

- Fluctuations and inhomogenities of energy density and isospin in Pb + Pb at the SPS (1998)
- The main goal of heavy ion physics in the last fifteen years has been the search for the quark-gluon-plasma(QGP). Until now, unambigous experimental evidence for the QGP is missing.

- Signatures of quark gluon plasma formation in high-energy heavy ion collisions : a critical review (1998)
- Ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions offer the unique opportunity to probe highly excited dense nuclear matter under controlled laboratory conditions. The compelling driving force for such studies is the expectation that an entirely new form of matter may be created from such reactions. That form of matter, called the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), is the QCD analogue of the plasma phase of ordinary atomic matter. However, unlike such ordinary plasmas, the deconfined quanta of a QGP are not directly observable because of the fundamental confining property of the physical QCD vacuum. What is observable are hadronic and leptonic residues of the transient QGP state. There is a large variety of such individual probes.