Korrektur des präoperativen Astigmatismus mit multifokalen torischen Intraokularlinsen bei Kataraktoperation : meeting abstract
- Meeting Abstract: 26. Kongress der Deutschsprachigen Gesellschaft für Intraokularlinsen-Implantation, Interventionelle und Refraktive Chirurgie (DGII), 08.03.-10.03.2012, Berlin.
Fragestellung: Beurteilung der Korrektur des Astigmatismus mit der multifokalen torischen Intraokularlinsen (IOL) ReSTOR Toric (Alcon, Ft. Worth, USA) bei Kataraktoperation.
Methodik: Die Multicenterstudie umfasste Kataraktepatienten mit präoperativem Astigmatismus von ≥0,75 bis ≤2,5 dpt. die Patienten wurden einer bilateralen Implantation einer torischen multifokalen IOL zur Korrektur der Hornhautverkrümmung unterzogen. Die OP erfolgte ohne relaxierende limbale Inzisionen durch eine clear-cornea Inzision <3,0 mm. Prä- und postoperativ wurden für diese Subanalyse Autokeratometrie sowie subjektiver Astigmatismus von 39 Augen von 40 Patienten im Alter von 59,8±7,0 Jahren analysiert.
Ergebnisse: Präoperativ betrug der mittlere keratometrische Astigmatismus 1,43±0,57 dpt. Die mittlere Inzisionsgröße betrug 2,59±0,41 mm. 1 Monat postoperativ betrug der mittlere keratometrische Astigmatismus 1,51±0,95 dpt (25 Augen). Der Unterschied im keratometrischen Astigmatismus zwischen präoperativ und 1-Monat-postop betrug 0,57±0,96 dpt. Der präoperative subjektive Astigmatismus wurde signifikant von 0,32±0,33 dpt (25 Augen) auf 0,99±0,70 dpt reduziert. (39 Augen, p <0,0001).
Schlussfolgerung: Die Implantation der multifokale torischen IOL zeigt vorhersehbare postoperative Ergebnisse bei der Korrektur des Astigmatismus nach kataraktoperation.
Blood levels of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) in patients with neurological diseases
Christoph A. Mayer
- Background and Purpose: The brain-specific astroglial protein GFAP is a blood biomarker candidate indicative of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with symptoms suspicious of acute stroke. Comparably little, however, is known about GFAP release in other neurological disorders. In order to identify potential “specificity gaps” of a future GFAP test used to diagnose intracerebral hemorrhage, we measured GFAP in the blood of a large and rather unselected collective of patients with neurological diseases.
Methods: Within a one-year period, we randomly selected in-patients of our university hospital for study inclusion. Patients with ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack and intracerebral hemorrhage were excluded. Primary endpoint was the ICD-10 coded diagnosis reached at discharge. During hospital stay, blood was collected, and GFAP plasma levels were determined using an advanced prototype immunoassay at Roche Diagnostics.
Results: A total of 331 patients were included, covering a broad spectrum of neurological diseases. GFAP levels were low in the vast majority of patients, with 98.5% of cases lying below the cut-off that was previously defined for the differentiation of intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. No diagnosis or group of diagnoses was identified that showed consistently increased GFAP values. No association with age and sex was found.
Conclusion: Most acute and chronic neurological diseases, including typical stroke mimics, are not associated with detectable GFAP levels in the bloodstream. Our findings underline the hypothesis that rapid astroglial destruction as in acute intracerebral hemorrhage is mandatory for GFAP increase. A future GFAP blood test applied to identify patients with intracerebral hemorrhage is likely to have a high specificity.
Protocol TOP-Study (tacrolimus organ perfusion): a prospective randomized multicenter trial to reduce ischemia reperfusion injury in transplantation of marginal liver grafts with an "ex vivo" tacrolimus perfusion
Marcus N. Scherer
Martin Kurt Angele
- Background: Critical organ shortage results in the utilization of extended donor criteria (EDC) liver grafts. These marginal liver grafts are prone to increased ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) which may contribute to deteriorated graft function and survival. Experimental data have shown that the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus exerts protective effects on hepatic IRI when applied intravenously or directly as a hepatic rinse. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the effects of an ex vivo tacrolimus perfusion on IRI in transplantation of EDC liver grafts.
Methods/Design: The TOP-Study (tacrolimus organ perfusion) is a randomized multicenter trial comparing the ex vivo tacrolimus perfusion of marginal liver grafts with placebo. We hypothesize that a tacrolimus rinse reduces IRI, potentially improving organ survival following transplantation of EDC livers. The study includes livers with two or more EDC, according to Eurotransplant International Foundation’s definition of EDC livers. Prior to implantation, livers randomized to the treatment group are rinsed with tacrolimus at a concentration of 20 ng/ml in 1000 ml Custodiol solution and in the placebo group with Custodiol alone. The primary endpoint is the maximum serum alanine transamninase (ALT) level within the first 48 hours after surgery; however, the study design also includes a 1-year observation period following transplantation. The TOP-Study is an investigator-initiated trial sponsored by the University of Munich Hospital. Seven other German transplant centers are participating (Berlin, Frankfurt, Heidelberg, Mainz, Münster, Regensburg, Tübingen) and aim to include a total of 86 patients.
Discussion: Tacrolimus organ perfusion represents a promising strategy to reduce hepatic IRI following the transplantation of marginal liver grafts. This treatment may help to improve the function of EDC grafts and therefore safely expand the donor pool in light of critical organ shortage.
Trial register: EudraCT number: 2010-021333-31, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01564095
An unusual unifocal presentation of Castleman’s disease in a young woman with a detailed description of sonographic findings to reduce diagnostic uncertainty: a case report
- Background: Castleman’s disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder. It typically presents as mediastinal masses and causes a wide range of clinical symptoms. Histologically, Castleman’s disease is classified as either a hyalinic vascular or plasma cell variant. The prognosis mainly depends on the histological type and broadly varies. We herein report our sonographic findings in a patient with Castleman’s disease, including gray-scale ultrasonography, color Doppler ultrasonography, and sonoelastography ultrasonography, which have not been previously reported in the literature. These findings allowed for a preoperative diagnosis and avoidance of overly aggressive therapy.
Case presentation: A 28-year-old European female patient with unicentric Castleman’s disease of hyalinic vascular type (HV) restricted to the axilla was referred to us because of a 4-month history of a painless, solitary mass located in the left axilla. The patient’s medical history was unremarkable.
Conclusion: Castleman’s disease is a pathologic entity of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. In this case report of unicentric HV-type CD, we demonstrate that typical sonographic findings can lead to a preoperative diagnosis of Castleman’s disease. Core needle biopsy usually allows for a final diagnosis and helps to avoid unnecessary operations and overtreatment.
Risk factor analysis for fast track protocol failure
Tobias Michael Bingold
- Background: The introduction of fast-track treatment procedures following cardiac surgery has significantly shortened hospitalisation times in intensive care units (ICU). Readmission to intensive care units is generally considered a negative quality criterion. The aim of this retrospective study is to statistically analyse risk factors and predictors for re-admission to the ICU after a fast-track patient management program.
Methods: 229 operated patients (67 ± 11 years, 75% male, BMI 27 ± 3, 6/2010-5/2011) with use of extracorporeal circulation (70 ± 31 min aortic crossclamping, CABG 62%) were selected for a preoperative fast-track procedure (transfer on the day of surgery to an intermediate care (IMC) unit, stable circulatory conditions, extubated). A uni- and multivariate analysis were performed to identify independent predictors for re-admission to the ICU.
Results: Over the 11-month study period, 36% of all preoperatively declared fast-track patients could not be transferred to an IMC unit on the day of surgery (n = 77) or had to be readmitted to the ICU after the first postoperative day (n = 4). Readmission or ICU stay signifies a dramatic worsening of the patient outcome (mortality 0/10%, mean hospital stay 10.3 ± 2.5/16.5 ± 16.3, mean transfusion rate 1.4 ± 1,7/5.3 ± 9.1). Predicators for failure of the fast-track procedure are a preoperative ASA class > 3, NYHA class > III and an operation time >267 min ± 74. The significant risk factors for a major postoperative event (= low cardiac output and/or mortality and/or renal failure and/or re-thoracotomy and/or septic shock and/or wound healing disturbances and/or stroke) are a poor EF (OR 2.7 CI 95% 0.98-7.6) and the described ICU readmission (OR 0.14 CI95% 0.05-0.36).
Conclusion: Re-admission to the ICU or failure to transfer patients to the IMC is associated with a high loss of patient outcome. The ASA > 3, NYHA class > 3 and operation time >267 minutes are independent predictors of fast track protocol failure.
Identification of non-canonical NF-κB signaling as a critical mediator of Smac mimetic-stimulated migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells
- As inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins can regulate additional signaling pathways beyond apoptosis, we investigated the effect of the second mitochondrial activator of caspases (Smac) mimetic BV6, which antagonizes IAP proteins, on non-apoptotic functions in glioblastoma (GBM). Here, we identify non-canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling and a tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)/TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) autocrine/paracrine loop as critical mediators of BV6-stimulated migration and invasion of GBM cells. In addition to GBM cell lines, BV6 triggers cell elongation, migration and invasion in primary, patient-derived GBM cells at non-toxic concentrations, which do not affect cell viability or proliferation, and also increases infiltrative tumor growth in vivo underscoring the relevance of these findings. Molecular studies reveal that BV6 causes rapid degradation of cellular IAP proteins, accumulation of NIK, processing of p100 to p52, translocation of p52 into the nucleus, increased NF-κB DNA binding and enhanced NF-κB transcriptional activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay supershift shows that the NF-κB DNA-binding subunits consist of p50, p52 and RelB further confirming the activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway. BV6-stimulated NF-κB activation leads to elevated mRNA levels of TNFα and additional NF-κB target genes involved in migration (i.e., interleukin 8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, CXC chemokine receptor 4) and invasion (i.e., matrix metalloproteinase-9). Importantly, inhibition of NF-κB by overexpression of dominant-negative IκBα superrepressor prevents the BV6-stimulated cell elongation, migration and invasion. Similarly, specific inhibition of non-canonical NF-κB signaling by RNA interference-mediated silencing of NIK suppresses the BV6-induced cell elongation, migration and invasion as well as upregulation of NF-κB target genes. Intriguingly, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of the BV6-stimulated TNFα autocrine/paracrine loop by the TNFα-blocking antibody Enbrel or by knockdown of TNFR1 abrogates BV6-induced cell elongation, migration and invasion. By demonstrating that the Smac mimetic BV6 at non-toxic concentrations promotes migration and invasion of GBM cells via non-canonical NF-κB signaling, our findings have important implications for the use of Smac mimetics as cancer therapeutics.
Ultrasound-guided intramural inoculation of orthotopic bladder cancer xenografts: a novel high-precision approach
Kilian M. Gust
Alan I. So
Joachim W. Thüroff
Peter C. Black
- Orthotopic bladder cancer xenografts are essential for testing novel therapies and molecular manipulations of cell lines in vivo. Current xenografts rely on tumor cell inoculation by intravesical instillation or direct injection into the bladder wall. Instillation is limited by the lack of cell lines that are tumorigenic when delivered in this manner. The invasive model inflicts morbidity on the mice by the need for laparotomy and mobilization of the bladder. Furthermore this procedure is complex and time-consuming. Three bladder cancer cell lines (UM-UC1, UM-UC3, UM-UC13) were inoculated into 50 athymic nude mice by percutaneous injection under ultrasound guidance. PBS was first injected between the muscle wall and the mucosa to separate these layers, and tumor cells were subsequently injected into this space. Bioluminescence and ultrasound were used to monitor tumor growth. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was used to study changes in tumor perfusion after systemic gemcitabine/cisplatin treatment. To demonstrate proof of principle that therapeutic agents can be injected into established xenografts under ultrasound guidance, oncolytic virus (VSV) was injected into UM-UC3 tumors. Xenograft tissue was harvested for immunohistochemistry after 23–37 days. Percutaneous injection of tumor cells into the bladder wall was performed efficiently (mean time: 5.7 min) and without complications in all 50 animals. Ultrasound and bioluminescence confirmed presence of tumor in the anterior bladder wall in all animals 3 days later. The average tumor volumes increased steadily over the study period. UM-UC13 tumors showed a marked decrease in volume and perfusion after chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical staining for VSV-G demonstrated virus uptake in all UM-UC3 tumors after intratumoral injection. We have developed a novel method for creating orthotopic bladder cancer xenograft in a minimally invasive fashion. In our hands this has replaced the traditional model requiring laparotomy, because this model is more time efficient, more precise and associated with less morbidity for the mice.
EGFR-targeted granzyme B expressed in NK cells enhances natural cytotoxicity and mediates specific killing of tumor cells
Robert Alexander Jabulowsky
Winfried S. Wels
- Natural killer (NK) cells are highly specialized effectors of the innate immune system that hold promise for adoptive cancer immunotherapy. Their cell killing activity is primarily mediated by the pro-apoptotic serine protease granzyme B (GrB), which enters targets cells with the help of the pore-forming protein perforin. We investigated expression of a chimeric GrB fusion protein in NK cells as a means to augment their antitumoral activity. For selective targeting to tumor cells, we fused the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) peptide ligand transforming growth factor α (TGFα) to human pre-pro-GrB. Established human NKL natural killer cells transduced with a lentiviral vector expressed this GrB-TGFα (GrB-T) molecule in amounts comparable to endogenous wildtype GrB. Activation of the genetically modified NK cells by cognate target cells resulted in the release of GrB-T together with endogenous granzymes and perforin, which augmented the effector cells' natural cytotoxicity against NK-sensitive tumor cells. Likewise, GrB-T was released into the extracellular space upon induction of degranulation with PMA and ionomycin. Secreted GrB-T fusion protein displayed specific binding to EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells, enzymatic activity, and selective target cell killing in the presence of an endosomolytic activity. Our data demonstrate that ectopic expression of a targeted GrB fusion protein in NK cells is feasible and can enhance antitumoral activity of the effector cells.
Neuronal avalanches differ from wakefulness to deep sleep - evidence from intracranial depth recordings in humans
Michel Le Van Quyen
- Neuronal activity differs between wakefulness and sleep states. In contrast, an attractor state, called self-organized critical (SOC), was proposed to govern brain dynamics because it allows for optimal information coding. But is the human brain SOC for each vigilance state despite the variations in neuronal dynamics? We characterized neuronal avalanches – spatiotemporal waves of enhanced activity - from dense intracranial depth recordings in humans. We showed that avalanche distributions closely follow a power law – the hallmark feature of SOC - for each vigilance state. However, avalanches clearly differ with vigilance states: slow wave sleep (SWS) shows large avalanches, wakefulness intermediate, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep small ones. Our SOC model, together with the data, suggested first that the differences are mediated by global but tiny changes in synaptic strength, and second, that the changes with vigilance states reflect small deviations from criticality to the subcritical regime, implying that the human brain does not operate at criticality proper but close to SOC. Independent of criticality, the analysis confirms that SWS shows increased correlations between cortical areas, and reveals that REM sleep shows more fragmented cortical dynamics.
miRNA let-7e modulates the Wnt pathway and early nephrogenic markers in mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation
Jose Luis Viñas
- This study indicates that embryonic stem cells [ESCs] cultured with retinoic acid and activin A significantly upregulate the miRNA let-7e. This specific miRNA modulates the Wnt pathway and the expression of early nephrogenic markers under these differentiation conditions. The differentiation markers WT1, Pax2 and Wnt4 were downregulated when miRNA let-7e was silenced, thus indicating the role of miRNA let-7e in the differentiation process. PKCβ, GSK3β phosphorylation (GSK3βP) and β-catenin expression was reduced in differentiated cells and reversed by miRNA let-7e silencing. Addition of a PKCβ inhibitor to the miRNA let-7e silenced cells abolished let-7e-derived effects in differentiation markers, and reversed the increase in GSK3βP and β-catenin, thus indicating that miRNA let-7e is involved in differentiation via the modulation of GSK3β phosphorylation and β-catenin production.