Biologische Hochschulschriften (Goethe-Universität)
Structural analysis of SHARPIN, a subunit of a large multi-protein E3 ubiquitin ligase, reveals a novel dimerization function for the pleckstrin homology superfold
Lesley F. Haire
- SHARPIN (SHANK-associated RH domain interacting protein) is part of a large multi-protein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex called LUBAC (linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex), which catalyzes the formation of linear ubiquitin chains and regulates immune and apoptopic signaling pathways. The C-terminal half of SHARPIN contains ubiquitin-like domain and Npl4-zinc finger domains that mediate the interaction with the LUBAC subunit HOIP and ubiquitin, respectively. In contrast, the N-terminal region does not show any homology with known protein interaction domains but has been suggested to be responsible for self-association of SHARPIN, presumably via a coiled-coil region. We have determined the crystal structure of the N-terminal portion of SHARPIN, which adopts the highly conserved pleckstrin homology superfold that is often used as a scaffold to create protein interaction modules. We show that in SHARPIN, this domain does not appear to be used as a ligand recognition domain because it lacks many of the surface properties that are present in other pleckstrin homology fold-based interaction modules. Instead, it acts as a dimerization module extending the functional applications of this superfold.
Generation and physiological roles of linear ubiquitin chains
- Ubiquitination now ranks with phosphorylation as one of the best-studied post-translational modifications of proteins with broad regulatory roles across all of biology. Ubiquitination usually involves the addition of ubiquitin chains to target protein molecules, and these may be of eight different types, seven of which involve the linkage of one of the seven internal lysine (K) residues in one ubiquitin molecule to the carboxy-terminal diglycine of the next. In the eighth, the so-called linear ubiquitin chains, the linkage is between the amino-terminal amino group of methionine on a ubiquitin that is conjugated with a target protein and the carboxy-terminal carboxy group of the incoming ubiquitin. Physiological roles are well established for K48-linked chains, which are essential for signaling proteasomal degradation of proteins, and for K63-linked chains, which play a part in recruitment of DNA repair enzymes, cell signaling and endocytosis. We focus here on linear ubiquitin chains, how they are assembled, and how three different avenues of research have indicated physiological roles for linear ubiquitination in innate and adaptive immunity and suppression of inflammation.