Weitere biologische Literatur (eingeschränkter Zugriff)
Phylogeny, taxonomy and palaeobiogeography of delthyridoid Spiriferids (Brachiopoda, Silurian to Devonian)
- Delthyridoid spiriferids are characterized by a global abundance and fast evolution during Silurian and Devonian, and, therefore, are used as important biostratigraphical and palaeobiogeographical tools. In this work, delthyridoid brachiopod faunas from different regions of today’s world, resp., of different palaeobiogeographical units, are compared side-by-side to investigate their phylogenetic relationships and to improve, in a second step, the palaeobiogeography from Late Silurian to Early Eifelian time. A new systematics of Delthyridoidae is established which is more complicated than hitherto assumed. The results of this study are mainly based on direct comparison of articulated and isolated brachiopod shells, external and internal moulds, as well as latex casts and serial sections. The computer supported cladistic analyses have turned out not to be useful due to different kinds of preservation resulting in an incomplete matrix which is insufficient for reliable cladograms. A further problem in terms of cladistical analyses are various convergences during the evolution of spiriferids. Many characters evolved independently from each other at different times in each lineage so that autapomorphies are hardly or not at all recognizable. As a result, families and genera are only definable by a combination of characters rather than by a single or a few autapomorphies. As a new method, 3D reconstruction from serial sections is introduced which made it possible for the first time to compare directly mouldic and shelly material. Preliminary results are presented herein. Statistical analyses of measurements taken from new taxa are made but regarded as a descriptive argument rather than a deciding factor for taxonmy due to incomplete preservation and/or tectonic deformation. Brachiopods, especially type material, from collections of different institutions and museums are studied as well as personal material, whenever possible collected from topotype outcrops. Emended diagnoses, if necessary, from family to species level are given. During this work several new taxa have been erected: 7 new families: Australospiriferidae, Murchisonispiriferidae, Orientospiriferidae, Otospiriferidae, Patriaspiriferidae, Rostrospiriferidae, and Trigonospiriferidae; 6 new genera, 1 of these in open nomenclature: Cyclopterospirifer, Hallispirifer, Parlinispirifer, Murchisonispirifer, Shujiapingensispirifer, and gen. nov. B; and 3 new species: Patriaspirifer merriami, Patriaspirifer johnsoni, and Murchisonispirifer feldmani; 1 taxon is defined as nomen novum: Orientospirifer nakaolingensis wani. In the framework of this project, 2 families: Filispiriferidae and Multispiriferidae; 1 subfamily: Multiplicatispiriferinae, 6 genera, 1 of them in open nomenclature: Frequentispirifer, Leonispirifer, Multiplicatispirifer, Ovetensispirifer, Turcispirifer, and Gen. A; and 9 new species, 3 of them in open nomenclature: Filispirifer hamadae, Leonispirifer leonensis, Multiplicatispirifer foumzguidensis, Oventensispirifer novascotianus, Quiringites arensentiae, Turcispirifer turciae, Multiplicatispirifer cf. foumzguidensis, Quiringites cf. arensentiae, and ?Turcispirifer sp. A which have already been established are also described in this work. The brachiopod faunas studied consist of externally very similar spiriferids which have been identified as same genera, species, or even subspecies in earlier times. These forms are considered as 6 distinct morphotypes Howellella-, Arduspirifer-, Acrospirifer-, Euryspirifer-, Paraspirifer-, and Multiplicatispirifer-like morphotypes, which are briefly introduced. The new systematics is characterized by different clades, the European/North African delthyridoid spiriferid clade, the North American delthyridoid spiriferid clade, the Asian delthyridoid spiriferid clade, the Malvinokaffric delthyridoid spiriferid clade, and the delthyridoid multiplicated spiriferid clade. Each of them is described in a cladistic and in a phylogenetic way. Their phylogenetic relationship sheds new light on palaeobiogeographical interpretations for the different stages from Late Silurian to early Middle Devonian time. A tendency for increasing endemicity is seen until the end of the Early Emsian, which is interrupted by short term regional faunal exchange within a province or within a realm, followed by a loss of endemicity resulting in global distribution of brachiopod genera until the end of Givetian time. The Old World Realm is re-defined due to the lack of phylogenetic relationship between its faunas and subdivided into the European Realm, consisting of the Gondwanan and Avalonian provinces, and the Asian Realm, consisting of the Siberian, Sino, and Mongolian provinces. A reconstruction of Lower Devonian palaeobiographical map is introduced.