Untersuchungen zur Bedeutung von Superoxid-Dismutasen für die Alterung von Podospora anserina
- Im Rahmen dieser vorliegenden Doktorarbeit sollte die Bedeutung von Superoxid-Dismutasen für das Resistenzverhalten und den Alterungsprozess bei P. anserina untersucht werden. Folgende Befunde aus den Analysen konnten erhalten werden:
1. Lokalisationsstudien der drei PaSods
Aus den biochemischen und fluoreszenzmikroskopischen Untersuchungen der drei verschiedenen PaSODs geht hervor, dass PaSOD1, eine Cu/ZnSOD, überwiegend im Cytosol und zu einem geringen Anteil im mitochondrialen Intermembranraum lokalisiert ist. Eine der beiden MnSODs, PaSOD2, wird vermutlich zur Abwehr von exogenem Superoxid sekretiert. Bei PaSOD3 handelt es sich um eine mitochondriale MnSOD.
2. Generierung von verschiedenen PaSod-Mutanten
Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden von jeder PaSod mindestens drei unabhängige Überexpressionsstämme, ein GFP-Stamm- und ein Deletionsstamm hergestellt. Weiterhin wurden alle möglichen Doppel-Deletionsstämme und die Dreifach-Deletionsmutante erzeugt. Alle Stämme wurden auf DNA-Ebene verifiziert, zusätzlich wurde die Proteinmenge bzw. –Aktivität überprüft.
3. Einfluss der PaSODs auf die ROS-Toleranz
Die Analysen der ROS-Resistenzen haben gezeigt, dass PaSODs eine wichtige Rolle in der Entgiftung von Superoxiden spielt. So ließ sich bei den Deletionsstämmen der PaSods eine gesteigerte Sensitivität gegenüber Paraquat feststellen. Eine Aufsummierung der Sensitivität gegenüber Paraquat ist bei der PaSod-Tripelmutante (ΔPaSod1/2/3) zu erkennen.
Überraschenderweise kann durch die gesteigerten Mengen an aktiver PaSOD in den Überexpressionsstämmen (PaSod1-3_OEx) keine verbesserte Resistenz gegenüber Paraquat erzielt werden. Darüber hinaus führt die Überexpression des Gens für die mitochondriale SOD, PaSOD3, zu massiven negativen Effekten.
4. Einfluss auf die Lebensspanne
Durch eine fehlende Entgiftung von Superoxid in den PaSod-Deletionsmutanten ist eine Verminderung der Lebensspanne nicht festzustellen. Bei PaSod-Mutantenstämme, die eine erhöhte PaSOD-Aktivität und damit eine gesteigerte Abbaurate des Superoxids aufweisen, kann bei den PaSod1- und PaSod2-Überexpressionsstämmen keine verbesserte Lebensspanne unter den gewählten Standardbedingungen erzielt werden. Vielmehr noch ist die Lebensspanne der PaSod3-Überexpressionsstämme stark reduziert.
5. Einfluss der PaSod-Modulation auf andere Komponenten des ROS-Abbausystems
Die PaSOD-Aktivitäten scheinen miteinander co-reguliert zu werden. Des Weiteren scheint es ein Zusammenhang zwischen den beiden sekretierten Enzymen PaSOD2 und PaCATB zu geben. Deutlich wird auch, dass die Modulation der Superoxid-Dismutasen eine weitreichende Auswirkung auf andere Schutzsysteme hat. Beispielweise konnte gezeigt werden, dass Komponenten des mitochondrialen ROS-Schutzsystems und der Protein-Qualitätskontrolle in den PaSod3-Überexpressionsstämmen verändert sind.
Zusammenfassend lassen die Analysen der PaSod-modulierten Stämme den Schluss zu, dass die Superoxid-Dismutase in P. anserina ein wichtiges Enzym zum Abbau des schädlichen Superoxids darstellt, welches aber nur eine untergeordnete Rolle bei der Kontrolle der Lebensspanne unter den gewählten Wachstumsbedingungen im Labor ausübt. Des Weiteren haben die Analysen gezeigt, dass es durch die Modulation der PaSod-Gene zu weitreichenden Änderungen, die das ROS-Schutzsystem (PaSOD, PaCATB und PaPRX1) sowie die Protein-Qualitätskontrolle (PaHSP60, PaLON und PaCLPP) betreffen, kommt. Welche Auswirkung dabei diese Veränderungen in Bezug auf die Lebensspanne hat, kann nur schwer abgeschätzt werden und muss mit weiteren Untersuchungen geklärt werden.
Assessing the combined effects of xenobiotics, climate change and predators on aquatic organisms in multiple stressor experiments : a case study with pyrimethanil
- The environmental impact of climate change is meanwhile not only discussed in the scientific community but also in the general public. However, little is known about the interaction between climate change and pollutants like pesticides. A combination of multiple stressors (e.g. temperature, pollutants, predators) may lead to severe alterations for organisms such as changes in time of reproduction, reproductive success and growth performance, mortality and geographic distribution. The questions if aquatic organisms tend to react more sensitive towards incidents under climate change conditions remains. Therefore, within the present thesis the aquatic ecotoxicological profile of the fungicide pyrimethanil, as an exemplarily anthropogenic used contaminant, was examined.
A large test battery of ecotoxicological standard tests and supplement bioassays with non-model species was conducted to investigate if species-specific or life stage-specific differences occur or if temperature alteration may change the impact of the fungicide. Two of the most sensitive species (Chironomus riparius and Daphnia magna) were used to investigate the acute and chronic thermal dependence of pyrimethanil effects. The results clearly depict that the ecotoxicity of pyrimethanil at optimal thermal conditions did not depend on the trophic level, but was species-specific. With regard to EC10 values the acute pyrimethanil toxicity on C. riparius increased with higher temperature (6.78 mg L-1 at 14°C and 3.06 mg L-1 at 26°C). The chronic response of D. magna to the NOEC (no observed effect concentration) of the fungicide (0.5 mg L-1) was examined in an experiment which lasted for several generations under three simulated near-natural temperature regimes (‘cold year, today’ (11 to 22.7°C), ‘warm year, today’ (14 to 25.2°C) and ‘warm year, 2080’ (16.5 to 28.1°C)). A pyrimethanil-induced mortality increase was buffered by the strongly related increase of the general reproductive capacity, while population growth was stronger influenced by temperature than by the fungicide. At a further pyrimethanil concentration (LOEC – lowest observed effect concentration: 1 mg L-1), a second generation could not be established by D. magna under all thermal regimes.
Besides daphnids, the midge C. riparius was used for a second multigeneration study. In a bifactorial test design it was tested if climate change conditions alter or affect the impact of a low fungicide concentration on life history and genetic diversity. The NOAEC/2 (half of the no observed adverse effect concentration derived from a standard toxicity test) was used as a low pyrimethanil concentration to which laboratory populations of the midges were chronically exposed under the mentioned temperature scenarios. During the 140-day-multigeneration study, survival, emergence, reproduction, population growth, and genetic diversity of C. riparius were analyzed. The results reveal that high temperatures and pyrimethanil act synergistically on life history parameters of C. riparius. In simulated present-day scenarios, a NOAEC/2 of pyrimethanil provoked only slight to moderate beneficial or adverse effects. In contrast, an exposure to a NOAEC/2 concentration of pyrimethanil at a thermal situation likely for a summer under the future expactations uncovered adverse effects on mortality and population growth rate. In addition, genetic diversity was considerably reduced by pyrimethanil in the ‘warm year, 2080’ scenario, but only slightly under current climatic conditions. The multigeneration studies under near-natural thermal conditions indicate that not only the impact of climate change, but also low concentrations of pesticides may pose a reasonable risk for aquatic invertebrates in the future. This clearly shows that thermal and multigenerational effects should be considered when appraising the ecotoxicity of pesticides and assessing their future risk for the environment.
In addition to temperature further multiple abiotic and biotic stressors alterate pollutant effects. Moreover, to better discriminate and understand the intrinsic and environmental correlates of changing aquatic ecosystems, it was experimentally unraveled how the effects of a low-dose of pyrimethanil on daphnids becomes modified by different temperatures (15°C, 20°C, 25°C) and in the presence/ absence of predator kairomones of Chaoborus flavicans larvae. The usage of a fractional multifactorial test design provided the possibility to investigate the individual growth, reproduction and population growth rate of Daphnia pulex via different exposure routes to the fungicide pyrimethanil at an environmentally relevant concentration (0.05 mg L-1) - either directly (via the water phase), indirectly (via algae food), dually (via water and food) or for multiple generations (fungicide treated source population).
The number of neonates increased with increasing temperatures. At a temperature of 25°C no significant differences between the individual treatment groups were observed although the growth was overall inhibited due to pyrimethanil. Besides, at 15 and 20°C it is obvious that daphnids which were fed with contaminated algae had the lowest reproduction and growth rate. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that multiple stress factors can modify the response of daphnids to pollutants. The exposure routes of the contaminant are of minor importance, while temperature and the presence of a predator are the dominant factors impacting the reproduction of D. pulex. It can be concluded that low concentrations of pyrimethanil may disturb the zooplankton community at suboptimal temperature conditions, but the effects will become masked if chaoborid larvae are present. Therefore it seems necessary to observe prospectively if the combination of several stress factors like pesticide exposure and suboptimal temperature may influence the life history and sensitivity of several aquatic invertebrates differently.
Besides standard test organisms it is inevitable to conduct test with aquatic invertebrate which are not yet considered regularly in ecotoxicological experiments. For example molluscs represent one of the largest phyla of macroinvertebrates with more than 100.000 species, being ecologically and economically important. Therefore, within the present study embryo, juvenile, half- and full-life cycle toxicity tests with the snail Physella acuta were performed to investigate the impact of pollutants on various life stages. Different concentrations of pyrimethanil (0.06-0.5 or 1.0 mg L-1) assessed at three temperatures (15°C, 20°C, 25°C) revealed that pyrimethanil caused concentration-dependent effects independent of temperature. Interestingly, the ecotoxicity of pyrimethanil was higher at lower temperature for the embryo hatching and F1 reproduction, but its ecotoxicity for the growth of juveniles and the F0 reproduction increased with increasing temperature. More specifically, it could have been observed that especially during the reproduction test high mortality rates occurred at the highest concentration of 1 mg L-1 at all temperatures. Due to high mortality rates no snails were available for the F1 at the highest concentrations (0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1). Compared to the F0, overall more egg masses were produced in the F1, being all fertile and no mortality occurred. For the F1-generation the strongest pyrimethanil effects were detected at 15°C. A comparison of effect concentrations between both generations showed that the F1 is more sensitive than the F0.
These results indicate that an exposure over more than one generation may give a better overview of the impact of xenobiotics. With the establishment of an embryo and reproduction test under different temperatures and various concentrations of pyrimethanil with P. acuta we could successfully show that molluscs can respond more sensitive than model organisms and that both, chemical and thermal stressor strongly influence the behaviour of the pulmonates. It can be concluded that the high susceptibility for the fungicide observed in gastropods clearly demonstrates the complexity of pesticide-temperature interactions and the challenge to draw conclusions for the ecotoxicological risk assessment of pesticides under the impact of global climate change.
Impact of land-use on savanna vegetation and populations of non-timber forest product-providing tree species in West Africa
- Savannas are the most important timber and non-timber forest products (NTFPs) providing ecosystems in West Africa. They have been shaped by traditional human land-use (i.e. agriculture, grazing, and harvesting) for thousands of years. In the last decades, land-use has drastically changed due to the rapid population growth and the growing production of cash-crop in West Africa and this process is still continuing. The percentage of land intensively used for agriculture has increased, while the length of fallow periods has decreased. Such changes have enormous ecological, economic, and social consequences. In the context of land-use changes, there is an urgent need to better understand and evaluate the impact of land-use on savannas. Such an understanding provides insights on appropriate management activities that ensure the maintenance of savannas and guarantee the availability of savanna products for subsistence and commercial use of rural West African people.
The major objective of the present thesis was to study the impact of land-use on savanna vegetation and diversity as well as on populations of two important NTFP-providing tree species in a semi-arid area in West Africa. The study area was located in the south-eastern part of Burkina Faso and comprised the protected W National Park and its adjacent communal area.
In the first study (chapter 2), I investigated in cooperation with a colleague from Burkina Faso (Blandine Nacoulma) the impact of land-use on the savanna vegetation. We analyzed which environmental factors determine the occurrence of the vegetation types and investigated the effect of land-use on vegetation structure and the occurrence of life forms and highly valued tree species. Furthermore, we tested whether land-use has an impact on plant diversity pattern and if this impact differed between the vegetation types and layers (woody and herb layer). Vegetation relevés were performed and the vegetation and plant diversity of the protected W National Park were compared with those of its surrounding communal area. Our results reveal five vegetation types occurring in both areas. Elevation and physical soil characteristics and thus soil water availability for plants played the most important role for the occurrence of the vegetation types. The influence of land-use on plant diversity differed between the five vegetation types and the two layers. The impact was highest on the vegetation types with the most favorable soil conditions for cultivation and lowest on rocky habitats with poor soils. While the diversity of the woody layer was increased under human land-use, the diversity of the herb layer was diminished. Overall, as land-use effects were not only negative, our findings suggest that land-use does not automatically lead to a loss of plant species and to a degradation of savanna habitats. We conclude that both protected and communal areas are of great importance for the conservation of savanna vegetation and diversity. Our study highlights furthermore the importance of different management strategies for each vegetation type.
In the following two studies (chapter 3 and 4), the impact of land-use - and in particular of harvesting - on populations of Adansonia digitata L., the baobab tree, and Anogeissus leiocarpa (DC.) Guill. & Perr. was examined. These two tree species were chosen as they provide several NTFPs for the local population and as they show different levels of human protection and opposed life histories. Thus, they may react differently to land-use. Stands of the protected W National Park were compared with those of its surrounding communal area (in fallows, croplands, and villages). I applied dendrometric methods to study the population structures and combined it with rates and patterns of NTFP-harvesting (debarking and chopping/pruning). Furthermore, the impact of land-use and harvesting on the fruit production of A. digitata and on the sprouting ability of A. leiocarpa were studied. The inverse J-shaped size class distribution curve indicates that the stands of A. digitata were in a healthy state in the park, while the low number of smaller size classes in fallows, croplands, and villages may give evidence of an ageing population. However, a high number of seedlings were recorded in villages. The stands of A. leiocarpa were also in healthy states in the park and likewise in fallows. In contrast, the absence of saplings gives evidence of a declining population in croplands. Both species were strongly harvested by local people and harvesting was tree size-specific. Pruning in interaction with tree-size had a significant impact on fruit production of A. digitata. While smaller trees were more vulnerable to pruning, bigger trees benefited from slight-pruning. A. leiocarpa had a great ability to respond to chopping by sprouting. The sprouting ability increased even with higher chopping intensity. Results suggest that despite the intense harvesting and the land-use impact, populations of both species are still well preserved. While A. digitata can withstand the harvesting and land-use pressure by its longevity, extremely low adult mortality rates, and particularly due to positive human influences, A. leiocarpa is able to withstand the use pressure by its fast growing, high recruitment, and high sprouting ability. I conclude that a none protected tree species (A. leiocarpa) might not necessarily be at higher risk to the harvesting and land-use impact than a protected tree species (A. digitata) as the adverse impact of harvesting and land-use can be compensated by its specific life history.
Important additional information to such ecological findings can be provided by local people. Learning from traditional knowledge and management systems of local people will help to produce culturally and ecologically reasonable conservation and management strategies. Thus, I investigated local uses and management strategies of A. digitata and A. leiocarpa in the last two studies (chapter 5 and 6). Quantitative ethnobotanical surveys among the Gulimanceba people were conducted in the communal area in order to document uses of the different plant parts, harvesting modes, perceptions about the population status, and conservation status of both species. Hereby, differences in knowledge between gender, generations, and people from different villages were tested. Interviews reveal that both species are harvested for multipurpose and emphasize the high importance of both species for local people. Especially the leaves and fruits of A. digitata add valuable minerals and vitamins to the otherwise micronutrient-“poor” staple crops of the Gulimanceba people. In comparison with other studies in West Africa, it has turned out that people in this area could benefit even more from A. leiocarpa, e.g. for dyeing of clothes, for treatment of malaria and skin problems. Local knowledge did not differ between genders and generations, while it slightly differed between people from different villages. The lack of age differences suggests that the traditional knowledge about these two species is passed on from one generation to another. Differences between people from different villages might be explained by influences from the neighboring countries Niger and Benin. Current local harvesting modes and management strategies of both species resulted in sustainable use. However, ongoing land-use intensifications require adapted harvesting and management techniques to guarantee the persistence of these economically important species. These results provide, in combination with the ecological findings (chapter 3 and 4), appropriate management recommendations for A. digitata and A. leiocarpa that are reliable under currently practiced management strategies.
Molekulargenetische Optimierung der Sphingoidbasen-Produktion der nicht-konventionellen Hefe Pichia ciferrii
- Die nicht-konventionelle Hefe P. ciferrii produziert große Mengen der tetra-acetylierten Sphingoidbase Phytosphingosin (TAPS). Sphingoidbasen sind essentielle Komponenten des stratum corneums, der multilamellaren Barriere der menschlichen Haut, und daher in der Kosmetik-Industrie von großem Interesse. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit sollte die biotechnologische Produktion der Sphingoidbasen Phytosphingosin, Sphinganin und Sphingosin auf molekularbiologischer Ebene in P. ciferrii charakterisiert und optimiert werden. Die Hefe P. ciferrii konnte durch Etablierung einer einfachen und hoch-effizienten Transformations-Methode auf genetischer Ebene leicht zugänglich gemacht werden. Durch Inaktivierung des für NHEJ essentiellen PcLIG4 Gens konnte die Effizienz zielgerichteter genomischer Integrationen von transformierten DNA-Konstrukten von 1 % auf 87 % erhöht werden. Die Etablierung des Cre-loxP Systems erlaubte das mehrfache Verwenden eines Selektions-Markers wodurch sukzessiv mehrere genomische Integrationen in einem Stamm ermöglicht wurden. Durch diese Errungenschaften konnte das Ziel „Optimierung der Sphingoidbasen-Produktion der nicht-konventionellen Hefe P. ciferrii“ im Folgenden erfolgreich verfolgt werden. Der initiale Schritt der Sphingoidbasen-Biosynthese ist die von der Serin-Palmitoyl-Transferase katalysierte Kondensation von L-Serin und Palmitoyl-CoA. Durch die Deletion von Genen, die am L-Serin-Katabolismus von P. ciferrii beteiligt sind (PcSHM1, PcSHM2und PcCHA1), konnte die de novo Sphingoidbasen-Biosynthese optimiert werden und führte in einem lig4? Stamm zu einer etwa dreifachen Erhöhung der TAPS-Produktion. Weitere Ansätze den (vermutlich durch L-Serin feed back regulierten) L-Serin-Biosyntheseweg bzw. die in vivo L-Serin-Verfügbarkeit zu optimieren, führten nicht zu einer gesteigerten TAPS-Produktion. Durch weitere Deletion und Überexpression von Genen des Sphingolipid-Stoffwechsels konnte die TAPS-Produktion jedoch um ein Vielfaches verbessert werden. So konnte ein Stamm konstruiert werden, der die Gene PcLCB1, PcLCB2 und PcSYR2 überexprimiert und Deletionen der Gene PcSHM1, PcSHM2, PcCHA1, PcLCB4 und PcORM12 trägt. Dieser Stamm (CSS.L4.O.L2.L1.S2) wies eine mehr als fünffach erhöhte maximale spezifische TAPS-Produktbildungsrate (q Pmax ) auf und produzierte mit 2 g * L rund siebenmal mehr TAPS als der lig4? Ausgangsstamm, weshalb ein Einsatz dieses Stammes für die industrielle TAPS-Produktion denkbar wäre. Ausgehend von einem für die TAPS- (und somit Sphingoidbasen-) Produktion optimierten Stamm sollten Stämme mit optimierter TriASa- oder TriASo-Produktion für industrielle Zwecke generiert werden. Es stellte sich allerding heraus, dass erhöhte Mengen dieser Sphingoidbasen wahrscheinlich wachstumshemmend für P. ciferrii sind, weshalb eine weitere Produktions-Optimierung nicht ohne Weiteres möglich ist. In einem Laborstamm gelang es jedoch, durch Konstruktion und anschließende Transformation eines optimierten integrativen Plasmids (trägt die Gene, die für die Produktion von Sphingosin bzw. TriASo nötig sind) eine TriASo-Produktion von bis zu 30 mg * g (BTM) zu erzielen, wobei gleichzeitig die Bildung des Nebenprodukts TriASa auf weniger als 4 mg * g (BTM)reduziert wurde. Weiterhin konnte durch Deletion von PcSCS7 in einem TriASo-Produktionsstamm die TriASa-Produktion mehr als vierfach reduziert werden. Die Bildung eines weiteren von P. ciferrii gebildeten Nebenproduktes [Tri-Acetyl-Sphingadienin (TriASd)] konnte durch Deletion des PcSLD1 Gens unterbunden werden. Nach Inaktivierung von PcSCH9 konnte eine fast 20 %ige Verbesserung der TriASo-Produktion erreicht werden. Es konnten zwei putative Acetyl-Transferasen identifiziert werden (PcAft2 und PcSli1), die an der Acetylierung von Phytosphingosin (zu TAPS), Sphinganin (zu TriASa) und Sphingosin (zu TriASo) beteiligt sind. Die Aufklärung und Optimierung dieser von PcAtf2 und PcSli1 katalysierten Schritte sind vielversprechende Ansatzpunkte die Sphingoidbasen-Produktion in P. ciferrii weiter zu optimieren.
Cell specific crosstalk of the Wnt/β-catenin and the Shh pathway: implications for tumor development and regression
- The canonical Wnt/β-catenin and the Shh pathway as well as the Notch signaling cascade
are key regulators in stem cell biology and are independently associated with the development
of cancer. Despite the knowledge of a balanced signaling for cellular maintenance, the
fundamental biochemical mechanisms of crosstalk are still poorly understood. This study
demonstrates that the outcome of interaction between Wnt and Shh is cell type specific. A
combined inhibitory mechanism of the Shh and Notch2/Jagged2 pathways on dominant
active β-catenin signaling in the adult tongue epithelium keeps Wnt/β-catenin signaling
restricted to physiological tolerable levels. In the opposite crosstalk the activation of
Wnt/β-catenin signaling in medulloblastoma (MB) of the Shh subtype, in turn inhibits the Hh
The inhibitory mechanism of Shh and Notch2/Jagged2 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling is
independent of the degradation complex of β-catenin and takes place inside the nucleus.
Furthermore, the negative feedback on Wnt/β-catenin signaling by the Shh pathway relies
on transcriptional activity of Gli1/2A. Inhibition of Gli1/2A with the specific inhibitor GANT61
abrogated the negative impact of Shh on β-catenin signaling in vitro. Although the negative
feedback loop of Shh is still functional in human SCC25 cells, the inhibitory effect of
Notch2/Jagged2 is lost and contributes to the cancerogenic phenotype of these cells. In the
inverse situation, the activation of β−catenin signaling has a negative feedback on
constantly active Shh signaling and significantly inhibits the Hh pathway. This was shown in
Ptch+/- and Math1-Cre:SmoM2Fl/+ MB tumor spheres in vitro, in which inhibition of sphere
formation and growth was observed and Hh target gene transcription was down-regulated.
This demonstrates for the first time that the activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling
in primary MB cells with a Hh pathway over-activation has a negative effect on the growth of
these cells in vitro.
In summary the results show that crosstalk of Wnt/β-catenin and Shh signaling has context
specific outcome on pathway activity. Elucidation of the molecular interactions will improve
our understanding of Wnt and Hh associated tumors and contribute to the development of
new therapeutic strategies.
Climate-linked temporal and spatial patterns in the evolution of African bovidae
Tim F. Schikora
- Climate and subsequent environmental changes are regarded as one driver of species evolution. Against this background the present study investigates the evolutionary history of the mammalian family Bovidae (Cetartiodactyla, Mammalia), today the most species-rich family of large herbivores on the African continent. Temporal and spatial patterns in that group’s evolution are the focus of the present study and were investigated using methods and data deriving from multiple disciplines (palaeontology, genetics, climatology, conservation biology). The results serve as a validation of macroevolutionary hypotheses of species evolution.
A major proportion of African mammalian fossils can be assigned to that family. Due to their morphological adaptations, bovid species are highly indicative of their habitats. Hence, bovids are of great importance for paleontology. However, a strong taphonomic bias is present in the fossil record of bovids, favoring large and arid- adapted species. Molecular phylogenies of extant species and species distribution modelling combined with climate reconstructions can help to overcome these limitations.
A molecular phylogeny, based on the cytochrome b gene of 136 bovid species served as basis for analysis of temporal patterns. Divergence events were dated using the relaxed molecular clock approach. The tree was time calibrated at 30 nodes using information inferred from the fossil record. Lineage-Through-Time plots and the respective statistical analyses reveal detailed temporal patterns in the evolutionary history of tribes and groups combining arid- and humid-adapted tribes. The resulting pattern shows three distinct phases. Phase 1 (P1) is dominated by speciation events within the humid group, while the second phase (P2) is marked by a dominance of speciation within the arid group. The switch in diversification rates (BDS) from P1 to P2 is dated to 2.8 million years ago. The third phase (P3) shows low diversification rates for all groups, starting around 1.4 million year ago and culminates in a significantly reduced diversification rate for the complete family at 0.8 million years ago. Both transitions are contemporaneous with global climate changes and turnover events in fossil faunal communities.
To investigate the impact of climate changes onto the habitat availability within the last 3 million years and its putative influence on diversification rates, the species distribution modeling method was applied. For 85 African species and subspecies the climate niches were established and grouped into 5 climate-groups based on their climate preferences. For each group the available habitat for the period before and after the BDS was calculated on continental scale using reconstructed climate scenarios. To evaluate the modeled habitat distributions, regional analyses were performed in test areas surrounding well studied fossil sites (Laetoli, Olduvai, Chiwondo Beds, Lothagam, Koobi Fora, West Turkana, Swartkrans, Sterkfontain und Toros-Menalla). Habitat profiles (HP) permitted the comparison of the model based habitat reconstruction with the interpretations of classic paleontological reconstruction. The validity of the habitat modeling has been shown in particular for East African test areas. The reconstructions for the northern and southern fossil sites does not support the modeled habitats in these areas. Yet, the method of habitat- profiling may serve as suitable tool for environmental reconstruction of areas lacking sufficient paleontological material. A comparison of habitat availability before and after the BDS on continental scale identified a significant loss of habitat for humid adapted groups (7-22%) and habitat gain for arid adapted groups (19-173%). The climatically intermediate group experiences a tremendous gain of habitat (3366%). The greatest environmental change was modeled for East Africa, initiated by a progressive regional aridification.
In addition to the distribution modeling for past climate conditions, the geographical distribution was modeled for the future, i.e. for climate scenarios representing the years 2050 and 2080 under a putative climate change scenario (global surface warming). It was shown that in particular the arid groups have to expect a remarkable loss of habitat (41-76%), while a gain of available habitat can be expected for the humid adapted groups (114-577%). The climatically intermediate group suffers the strongest habitat loss (85%). Regions with locally stable climate conditions were detected and may serve as potential refugia and are already today known as Africa’s hot spots of biodiversity.
The results show a positive correlation of high diversification rates and increasing habitat availability. None of the tested speciation hypotheses taken alone explains the observations (e.g., Turnover-pulse Hypothesis, Relay Model). A major element in these hypotheses is the passive fragmentation of populations induced by unfavorable climate changes. In contrast, the Periodic Model (Grubb 1999) considers natural, periodically recurring climate changes and moreover, the active dispersal of individuals and resulting founder events. I added the effect of a superimposed directed climate trend – like the progressive aridification since the late Pliocene in Africa – which leads to a bias in the proportion and probability towards leading edge effects. This Directed Periodic Model explains the patterns found in the evolution of Bovidae.
The combination of a molecular phylogeny and species distribution modeling, together with information inferred from the fossil record, reveals remarkable temporal and spatial patterns in the evolution of bovids, and helps overcome the limitations of the fossil record. The present study highlights the importance of active dispersal and founder populations in speciation processes. A point widely unattended in speciation hypotheses. The fully dated molecular phylogeny is the most densely sampled tree for the family Bovidae to date and may serve as a framework for a connection of present and future population studies, permitting the connection of medium-scale with long- term effects induced by climate and environmental changes.
Die Rolle von Stat3 in Gliomen
- Pharmakologische und genetische Inhibition von Stat3 und deren Auswirkungen im syngenen Maus-Gliom-Modell
Nephronectin regulates cardiac valve development via BMP4-HAS2 signaling in zebrafish
- It has been estimated that about 1% of live births carry severe congenital heart
defects and 20-30% among them have valve malformations. Despite its
medical importance the underlying cause of many valvular diseases remains
undiscovered. Thus, it is important to identify genes that play a crucial role in
cardiac valve formation and maturation.
A temporal RNA expression analysis of heart development suggested
that the extracellular matrix protein Nephronectin might be a novel regulator of
valve development and/or trabeculation. Nephronectin is transiently expressed
during rat heart development at the time of heart valve morphogenesis and
trabeculation. Moreover, the extracellular matrix is known to be crucial for
organogenesis. It is a complex, dynamic and critical component that regulates
cell behavior by modulating the activity, bioavailability, or presentation of
growth factors to cell surface receptors.
In order to verify the hypothesis that Nephronectin is a novel regulator of
valve formation and/or trabeculation the zebrafish was chosen as model
system. Females are able to spawn at intervals of 5 days laying hundreds of
eggs in each clutch. Development progresses rapidly with precursors to all
major organs appearing within 36 hours post fertilization. Zebrafish embryos
develop externally, are translucent and continue to grow for several days
despite developing severely malformed, non functional hearts. In addition, gene
expression can be easily modulated.
During the present study it has been shown that Nephronectin
expression is correlated to valve development and trabeculation. Morpholinomediated
knockdown of Nephronectin in zebrafish caused failure of valve
formation and trabeculation resulting in > 85% lethality at 7 days post
Cardiac valve formation is initiated at the junction of atrium and ventricle
and is characterized by extracellular matrix deposition and endocardial cell
differentiation. In accordance with the above-described phenotype the earliest
observed abnormality in Nephronectin morphants was an extended tube like
structure at the atrio-ventricular boundary. In addition, the expression of
myocardial genes involved in cardiac valve formation (cspg2, fibulin1, tbx2b,
bmp4) was expanded and endocardial cells along the extended tube like
structure exhibited characteristics of atrio-ventricular cells (has2, notch1b and
Alcam expression, cuboidal cell shape). Inhibition of has2 in Nephronectin
morphants rescued the endocardial but not the myocardial expansion. In
contrast, diminishment of BMP signaling in npnt morphants resulted in reduced
ectopic expression of myocardial and endocardial atrio-ventricular markers.
Taken together, these results identify Nephronectin as a novel upstream
regulator of BMP4-HAS2 signaling playing a crucial role in atrio-ventricular
Biochemical characterization of Fucoxanthin Chlorophyll a/c binding proteins in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum
- Diatoms contribute largely to the total primary production of the ecosphere and are key players in global biogeochemical cycles. Their chloroplasts are surrounded by four membranes owing to their secondary endosymbiotic origin. Their thylakoids are arranged into three parallel bands and differentiation of thylakoid membranes into grana or stroma is not observed. The fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c binding proteins act as the light harvesting proteins and play a role in photoprotection during excess light as well. The diatom genome encodes three different families of antenna proteins. Family I are the classical light harvesting proteins called "Lhcf". Family II are the red algae related Lhca-R1/2 proteins called "Lhcr" and family III are the photoprotective LI818 related proteins called "Lhcx".
All known Fcps have a molecular weight in the range of 17-23 kDa. They are membrane proteins and have shorter loops and termini compared to LHCs of higher plants and are therefore extremely hydrophobic. This makes the isolation of single specific Fcps using routine protein purification techniques difficult.
The purification of a specific Fcp containing complex has not been achieved so far and until this is done several questions concerning light harvesting antenna systems of diatoms cannot be answered. For e.g. Which proteins interact specifically? Are various Fcps differently pigmented? Which pigments interact with each other and how? Which proteins contribute to photosystem specific antenna systems? Can pure Fcps be reconstituted into crystals like LHCII proteins? In order to answer these questions specific Fcp containing complexes have to be purified. ...
The socio-economic importance of non-timber forest products for rural livelihoods in West African savanna ecosystems: current status and future trends
- For millennia, rural West African communities living in or adjacent of savanna ecosystems have been collecting components of local plant species (e.g. fruits, leaves, bark) in order to fulfil essential household subsistence needs (alimentation, medical care, energy demand etc.), to generate cash income and to overcome times of (financial) crisis. Thus, these non-timber forest products (NTFPs) make a considerable contribution to the well-being of local households. However, climate and land use change severely impact West African savanna ecosystems and, consequently, the safe-guarding of dependent rural livelihoods. The conversion of savanna area into cultivated land for subsistence farming owing to the ongoing population growth, as well as the progressive promotion of cash crops (e.g. cotton) is ever-increasing. As a consequence, present land-use management in West Africa has to cope with serious trade-offs. Within this decision-making NTFPs have been constantly understated due to a lack of appropriate economic figures to use within common cost-benefit analysis, and, thus, have been frequently outcompeted by seemingly more profitable land-use options. Therefore, it is crucial to provide appropriate economic data for NTFPs in order to create positive incentives for both decision-makers and NTFP beneficiaries to conserve NTFP-providing trees. The key finding of this analysis is that income from NTFPs accounts for 39 % on average of an annual total household income in Northern Benin, representing the second largest income share next to crop income and proving the respective households to be economically heavily dependent on NTFPs. Thereby, socio-economic characteristics of NTFP users tremendously shape their preferences for woody species. Particularly ethnicity has a major impact on the species used and the economic return obtained by them. Moreover, the study investigated the impacts of climate and land use change on the economic benefits derived from the three economically most important tree species in the region Vitellaria paradoxa, Parkia biglobosa and Adansonia digitata in 2050: Environmental changes will have primarily negative effects on the economic returns from all the three species. At large, the study underpins the economic relevance of NTFPs for rural communities in West African savannas and, consequently, the necessity to appropriately sustain them in order to safe-guard local livelihoods. Providing key figures on the current and future economic benefits obtained from NTFPs can augment common cost-benefit analysis, and, delivering detailed information about peoples’ use preferences for local species, this study clearly contributes to improve the basis of decision-making with reference to local land-use policies.