## Mathematik

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- Entropy increase in switching systems (2013)
- The relation between the complexity of a time-switched dynamics and the complexity of its control sequence depends critically on the concept of a non-autonomous pullback attractor. For instance, the switched dynamics associated with scalar dissipative affine maps has a pullback attractor consisting of singleton component sets. This entails that the complexity of the control sequence and switched dynamics, as quantified by the topological entropy, coincide. In this paper we extend the previous framework to pullback attractors with nontrivial components sets in order to gain further insights in that relation. This calls, in particular, for distinguishing two distinct contributions to the complexity of the switched dynamics. One proceeds from trajectory segments connecting different component sets of the attractor; the other contribution proceeds from trajectory segments within the component sets. We call them “macroscopic” and “microscopic” complexity, respectively, because only the first one can be measured by our analytical tools. As a result of this picture, we obtain sufficient conditions for a switching system to be more complex than its unswitched subsystems, i.e., a complexity analogue of Parrondo’s paradox.

- Synchronization of dissipative dynamical systems driven by non-Gaussian Lévy noises (2010)
- Dynamical systems driven by Gaussian noises have been considered extensively in modeling, simulation, and theory. However, complex systems in engineering and science are often subject to non-Gaussian fluctuations or uncertainties. A coupled dynamical system under a class of Lévy noises is considered. After discussing cocycle property, stationary orbits, and random attractors, a synchronization phenomenon is shown to occur, when the drift terms of the coupled system satisfy certain dissipativity and integrability conditions. The synchronization result implies that coupled dynamical systems share a dynamical feature in some asymptotic sense.

- Linear-implicit strong schemes for Itô-Galkerin approximations of stochastic PDEs (2001)
- Linear-implicit versions of strong Taylor numerical schemes for finite dimensional Itô stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are shown to have the same order as the original scheme. The combined truncation and global discretization error of an gamma strong linear-implicit Taylor scheme with time-step delta applied to the N dimensional Itô-Galerkin SDE for a class of parabolic stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) with a strongly monotone linear operator with eigenvalues lambda 1 <= lambda 2 <= ... in its drift term is then estimated by K(lambda N -½ + 1 + delta gamma) where the constant K depends on the initial value, bounds on the other coefficients in the SPDE and the length of the time interval under consideration. AMS subject classifications: 35R60, 60H15, 65M15, 65U05.

- Periodic solutions of systems with asymptotically even nonlinearities (2000)
- New conditions of solvability based on a general theorem on the calculation of the index at infinity for vector fields that have degenerate principal linear part as well as degenerate ... next order ... terms are obtained for the 2 Pi-periodic problem for the scalar equation x'' +n2x=g(|x|)+f(t,x)+b(t) with bounded g(u) and f(t,x) -> 0 as |x| -> 0. The result is also applied to the solvability of a two-point boundary value problem and to resonant problems for equations arising in control theory. AMS subject classifications: 47Hll, 47H30.

- Robust option replication for a Black-Scholes model extended with nondeterministic trends (1999)
- Statistical analysis on various stocks reveals long range dependence behavior of the stock prices that is not consistent with the classical Black and Scholes model. This memory or nondeterministic trend behavior is often seen as a reflection of market sentiments and causes that the historical volatility estimator becomes unreliable in practice. We propose an extension of the Black and Scholes model by adding a term to the original Wiener term involving a smoother process which accounts for these effects. The problem of arbitrage will be discussed. Using a generalized stochastic integration theory [8], we show that it is possible to construct a self financing replicating portfolio for a European option without any further knowledge of the extension and that, as a consequence, the classical concept of volatility needs to be re-interpreted. AMS subject classifications: 60H05, 60H10, 90A09.

- Lyapunov functions for linear nonautonomous dynamical equations on time scales (2006)
- The existence of a Lyapunov function is established following a method of Yoshizawa for the uniform exponential asymptotic stability of the zero solution of a nonautonomous linear dynamical equation on a time scale with uniformly bounded graininess.

- A note on strong solutions of stochastic differential equations with a discontinuous drift coefficient (2006)
- The existence of a mean-square continuous strong solution is established for vector-valued Itö stochastic differential equations with a discontinuous drift coefficient, which is an increasing function, and with a Lipschitz continuous diffusion coefficient. A scalar stochastic differential equation with the Heaviside function as its drift coefficient is considered as an example. Upper and lower solutions are used in the proof.

- Mean anisotropy of homogeneous Gaussian random fields and anisotropic norms of linear translation-invariant operators on multidimensional integer lattices (2003)
- Sensitivity of output of a linear operator to its input can be quantified in various ways. In Control Theory, the input is usually interpreted as disturbance and the output is to be minimized in some sense. In stochastic worst-case design settings, the disturbance is considered random with imprecisely known probability distribution. The prior set of probability measures can be chosen so as to quantify how far the disturbance deviates from the white-noise hypothesis of Linear Quadratic Gaussian control. Such deviation can be measured by the minimal Kullback-Leibler informational divergence from the Gaussian distributions with zero mean and scalar covariance matrices. The resulting anisotropy functional is defined for finite power random vectors. Originally, anisotropy was introduced for directionally generic random vectors as the relative entropy of the normalized vector with respect to the uniform distribution on the unit sphere. The associated a-anisotropic norm of a matrix is then its maximum root mean square or average energy gain with respect to finite power or directionally generic inputs whose anisotropy is bounded above by a >= 0. We give a systematic comparison of the anisotropy functionals and the associated norms. These are considered for unboundedly growing fragments of homogeneous Gaussian random fields on multidimensional integer lattice to yield mean anisotropy. Correspondingly, the anisotropic norms of finite matrices are extended to bounded linear translation invariant operators over such fields.

- Linear filtering with fractional Brownian motion in the signal and observation processes (1999)
- Integral equations for the mean-square estimate are obtained for the linear filtering problem, in which the noise generating the signal is a fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index h∈(3/4,1) and the noise in the observation process includes a fractional Brownian motion as well as a Wiener process. AMS subject classifications: 93E11, 60G20, 60G35.