## Mathematik

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- Satisfiability is quasilinear complete in NQL (1978)
- Considered are the classes QL (quasilinear) and NQL (nondet quasllmear) of all those problems that can be solved by deterministic (nondetermlnlsttc, respectively) Turmg machines in time O(n(log n) ~) for some k Effloent algorithms have time bounds of th~s type, it is argued. Many of the "exhausUve search" type problems such as satlsflablhty and colorabdlty are complete in NQL with respect to reductions that take O(n(log n) k) steps This lmphes that QL = NQL iff satisfiabdlty is m QL CR CATEGORIES: 5.25

- The process complexity and effective random tests (1972)
- We propose a variant of the Kolmogorov concept of complexity which yields a common theory of finite and infinite random sequences. The process complexity does not oscillate. We establish some concepts of effective tests which are proved to be equivalent.

- Incremental cryptography and memory checkers (1997)
- We introduce the relationship between incremental cryptography and memory checkers. We present an incremental message authentication scheme based on the XOR MACs which supports insertion, deletion and other single block operations. Our scheme takes only a constant number of pseudorandom function evaluations for each update step and produces smaller authentication codes than the tree scheme presented in [BGG95]. Furthermore, it is secure against message substitution attacks, where the adversary is allowed to tamper messages before update steps, making it applicable to virus protection. From this scheme we derive memory checkers for data structures based on lists. Conversely, we use a lower bound for memory checkers to show that so-called message substitution detecting schemes produce signatures or authentication codes with size proportional to the message length.

- Pseudorandom function tribe ensembles based on one-way permutations: improvements and applications (1999)
- Pseudorandom function tribe ensembles are pseudorandom function ensembles that have an additional collision resistance property: almost all functions have disjoint ranges. We present an alternative to the construction of pseudorandom function tribe ensembles based on oneway permutations given by Canetti, Micciancio and Reingold [CMR98]. Our approach yields two different but related solutions: One construction is somewhat theoretic, but conceptually simple and therefore gives an easier proof that one-way permutations suffice to construct pseudorandom function tribe ensembles. The other, slightly more complicated solution provides a practical construction; it starts with an arbitrary pseudorandom function ensemble and assimilates the one-way permutation to this ensemble. Therefore, the second solution inherits important characteristics of the underlying pseudorandom function ensemble: it is almost as effcient and if the starting pseudorandom function ensemble is efficiently invertible (given the secret key) then so is the derived tribe ensemble. We also show that the latter solution yields so-called committing private-key encryption schemes. i.e., where each ciphertext corresponds to exactly one plaintext independently of the choice of the secret key or the random bits used in the encryption process.

- Practical memory checkers for stacks, queues and deques (1997)
- A memory checker for a data structure provides a method to check that the output of the data structure operations is consistent with the input even if the data is stored on some insecure medium. In [8] we present a general solution for all data structures that are based on insert(i,v) and delete(j) commands. In particular this includes stacks, queues, deques (double-ended queues) and lists. Here, we describe more time and space efficient solutions for stacks, queues and deques. Each algorithm takes only a single function evaluation of a pseudorandomlike function like DES or a collision-free hash function like MD5 or SHA for each push/pop resp. enqueue/dequeue command making our methods applicable to smart cards.

- Efficient non-malleable commitment schemes (2000)
- We present efficient non-malleable commitment schemes based on standard assumptions such as RSA and Discrete-Log, and under the condition that the network provides publicly available RSA or Discrete-Log parameters generated by a trusted party. Our protocols require only three rounds and a few modular exponentiations. We also discuss the difference between the notion of non-malleable commitment schemes used by Dolev, Dwork and Naor [DDN00] and the one given by Di Crescenzo, Ishai and Ostrovsky [DIO98].

- Factoring via strong lattice reduction algorithm : technical report (1997)
- We address to the problem to factor a large composite number by lattice reduction algorithms. Schnorr has shown that under a reasonable number theoretic assumptions this problem can be reduced to a simultaneous diophantine approximation problem. The latter in turn can be solved by finding sufficiently many l_1--short vectors in a suitably defined lattice. Using lattice basis reduction algorithms Schnorr and Euchner applied Schnorrs reduction technique to 40--bit long integers. Their implementation needed several hours to compute a 5% fraction of the solution, i.e., 6 out of 125 congruences which are necessary to factorize the composite. In this report we describe a more efficient implementation using stronger lattice basis reduction techniques incorporating ideas of Schnorr, Hoerner and Ritter. For 60--bit long integers our algorithm yields a complete factorization in less than 3 hours.

- A cost-effective pay-per-multiplication comparison method for millionaires (2001)
- Based on the quadratic residuosity assumption we present a non-interactive crypto-computing protocol for the greater-than function, i.e., a non-interactive procedure between two parties such that only the relation of the parties' inputs is revealed. In comparison to previous solutions our protocol reduces the number of modular multiplications significantly. We also discuss applications to conditional oblivious transfer, private bidding and the millionaires' problem.

- The representation problem based on factoring (2002)
- We review the representation problem based on factoring and show that this problem gives rise to alternative solutions to a lot of cryptographic protocols in the literature. And, while the solutions so far usually either rely on the RSA problem or the intractability of factoring integers of a special form (e.g., Blum integers), the solutions here work with the most general factoring assumption. Protocols we discuss include identification schemes secure against parallel attacks, secure signatures, blind signatures and (non-malleable) commitments.

- Universally composable commitments (2001)
- We propose a new security measure for commitment protocols, called Universally Composable (UC) Commitment. The measure guarantees that commitment protocols behave like an \ideal commitment service," even when concurrently composed with an arbitrary set of protocols. This is a strong guarantee: it implies that security is maintained even when an unbounded number of copies of the scheme are running concurrently, it implies non-malleability (not only with respect to other copies of the same protocol but even with respect to other protocols), it provides resilience to selective decommitment, and more. Unfortunately two-party uc commitment protocols do not exist in the plain model. However, we construct two-party uc commitment protocols, based on general complexity assumptions, in the common reference string model where all parties have access to a common string taken from a predetermined distribution. The protocols are non-interactive, in the sense that both the commitment and the opening phases consist of a single message from the committer to the receiver.