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- Entropy increase in switching systems (2013)
- The relation between the complexity of a time-switched dynamics and the complexity of its control sequence depends critically on the concept of a non-autonomous pullback attractor. For instance, the switched dynamics associated with scalar dissipative affine maps has a pullback attractor consisting of singleton component sets. This entails that the complexity of the control sequence and switched dynamics, as quantified by the topological entropy, coincide. In this paper we extend the previous framework to pullback attractors with nontrivial components sets in order to gain further insights in that relation. This calls, in particular, for distinguishing two distinct contributions to the complexity of the switched dynamics. One proceeds from trajectory segments connecting different component sets of the attractor; the other contribution proceeds from trajectory segments within the component sets. We call them “macroscopic” and “microscopic” complexity, respectively, because only the first one can be measured by our analytical tools. As a result of this picture, we obtain sufficient conditions for a switching system to be more complex than its unswitched subsystems, i.e., a complexity analogue of Parrondo’s paradox.

- Detecting rate changes in spike trains (2010)
- Neuronal activity in the brain is often investigated in the presence of stimuli, termed externally driven activity. This stimulus-response-perspective has long been focussed on in order to find out how the nervous system responds to different stimuli. The neuronal response consists of baseline activity, so called spontaneous activity1, and activity which is caused by the stimulus. The baseline activity is often considered as constant over time which allows the identification of the stimulus-evoked part of the neuronal response by averaging over a set of trials. However, during the last years it has been recognized that own dynamics of the nervous system plays an important role in information processing. As a consequence, spontaneous activity is no longer regarded only as background ’noise’ and its role in cortical processing is reconsidered. Therefore, the study of spontaneous firing pattern gains more importance as these patterns may shape neuronal responses to a larger extent as previously thought. For example, recent findings suggest that prestimulus activity can predict a person’s visual perception performance on a single trial basis (Hanslmayr et al., 2007). In this context, Ringach (2009) remarks that one can learn much about even the quiescent state of the brain which “underlies the importance of understanding cortical responses as the fusion of ongoing activity and sensory input”. Taking into account that spontaneous activity reflects anything else but noise, new challenges arise when analysing neuronal data. In this thesis one of these problems related to the analysis of neuronal activity will be adressed, namely the nonstationarity of firing rates. The present work consists of four chapters. First of all the introduction gives neurophysiological background information to get an idea of neuronal information processing. Afterwords the theory of point processes is provided which forms the basis for modeling neuronal spiking data. In the last section of the introduction a statement of the problem is given. Chapter 2 proposes an easily applicable statistical method for the detection of nonstationarity. It is applied to simulations and to real data in order to show its capabilities. Thereafter, four other approaches are presented which provide useful illustrations concerning the nonstationarity of the firing rate but share the problem that one cannot make objective statements on the basis of their results. They were developed in the course of establishing a suitable method. In chapter 4 the results are discussed and suggestions for further study are given.

- Deformation quantization on symplectic stacks and applications to the moduli of flat connections (2008)
- It is a common problem in mathematical physics to describe and quantize the Poisson algebra on a symplectic quotient X := μ−1(c)/G given in terms of some moment map μ : M ! g ... on a symplectic manifold (M, !) with a hamiltonian action by a Lie group G. Among others, problems may arise in two parts of the process: c might be a singular value of the moment map and the quotient might not be well-behaving; in the interesting cases the quotient often is singular. By the famous result of Sjamaar and Lerman ([102]) X is a symplectic stratified space. We are interested in cases for which we can give a deformation quantization of the possibly singular Poisson algebra of X. To that purpose we introduce a Poisson algebra on the associated stack [μ−1(c)/G] for special cases and consider its deformations and their classification. We dedicate ourselves to use the rather geometric methods introduced by Fedosov for symplectic manifolds in [37]. That leads to the question how to perform differential geometry on a smooth stack. The Lie groupoid atlas of a smooth stack is a nice model for the same space (Tu, Xu and Laurent-Gengoux in [107] and Behrend and Xu in [16]), but both have different topoi. We give a morphism (P,R) that compares the topologies of a smooth stack and its atlas. This yields a method to transport sheaves and their sections between a smooth stack and its Lie groupoid atlas. A symplectic stack is a smooth separated Deligne-Mumford stack with a 2-form which is closed and non-degenerate in an atlas. Via (P,R) a deformation quantization on a symplectic stack can be performed in terms of an atlas. We also give a classification functor for the quantizations in the spirit of Deligne ([35]) based on the geometric interpretation given by Gutt and Rawnsely in [49]. As an application we give a deformation quantization for the moduli stack of flat connections in particular configurations. We use Darboux charts provided by Huebschmann (e.g. in [54]) to construct the corresponding Lie groupoid. This captures the symplectic form arising in the reduction process and differs from other approaches using gerbes of bundles (e.g. Teleman [105]).

- Energy-based model of forming subgroups on finite metric space (2009)
- Local interactions between particles of a collection causes all particles to reorganize in new positions. The purpose of this paper is to construct an energy-based model of self-organizing subgroups, which describes the behavior of singular local moves of a particle. The present paper extends the Hegselmann-Krause model on consensus dynamics, where agents simultaneously move to the barycenter of all agents in an epsilon neighborhood. The Energy-based model presented here is analyzed and simulated on finite metric space. AMS Subject Classifications:81T80; 93A30; 37M05; 68U20

- Mixed volumes, mixed Ehrhart theory and applications to tropical geometry and linkage configurations (2009)
- The aim of this thesis is the discussion of mixed volumes, their interplay with algebraic geometry, discrete geometry and tropical geometry and their use in applications such as linkage configuration problems. Namely we present new technical tools for mixed volume computation, a novel approach to Ehrhart theory that links mixed volumes with counting integer points in Minkowski sums, new expressions in terms of mixed volumes of combinatorial quantities in tropical geometry and furthermore we employ mixed volume techniques to obtain bounds in certain graph embedding problems.

- Condensing of self-organizing groups (2010)
- Condensing phenomena for systems biology, ecology and sociology present in real life different complex behaviors. Based on local interaction between agents, we present another result of the Energy-based model presented by [20]. We involve an additional condition providing the total condensing (also called consensus) of a discrete positive measure. Key words: Condensing; consensus; random move; self-organizing groups; collective intelligence; stochastic modeling. AMS Subject Classifications: 81T80; 93A30; 37M05; 68U20

- Projections of tropical varieties and an application to small tropical bases (2009)
- Tropical geometry is the geometry of the tropical semiring \[\mathbb{T}:=(\mathbb{R}\cup\{\infty\},\min,+).\] Classical algebraic structures correspond to tropical structures. If $I\lhd K[x_1,\ldots,x_n]$ is an ideal in a polynomial ring over a field $K$ with valuation $v$, then the classical algebraic variety correspond to the tropical variety $T(I)$. It is the set of all points $w$, such that the minimum $\min\{v(c_\alpha)+w\cdot\alpha\}$ is achieved twice for all $f=\sum_\alpha c_\alpha x^\alpha\in I$. So tropical geometry relates algebraic geometric problems with discrete geometric problems. In this thesis we obtain a tropical version of the Eisenbud-Evans Theorem which states that every algebraic variety in $\mathbb{R}^n$ is the intersection of $n$ hypersurfaces. We find out that in the tropical setting every tropical variety $T(I)$ can be written as an intersection of only $(n+1)$ tropical hypersurfaces. So we get a finite generating system of $I$ such that the corresponding tropical hypersurfaces intersect to the tropical variety, a so-called tropical basis. Let $I \lhd K[x_1,\ldots,x_n]$ be a prime ideal generated by the polynomials $f_1, \ldots, f_r$. Then there exist $g_0,\ldots,g_{n} \in I$ such that \[ T(I) \ = \ \bigcap_{i=0}^{n}T(g_i)\] and thus $\mathcal{G} := \{f_1, \ldots, f_r, g_0, \ldots, g_{n}\}$ is a tropical basis for $I$ of cardinality $r+n+1$. Tropical bases are discussed by Bogart, Jensen, Speyer, Sturmfels and Thomas where it is shown that tropical bases of linear polynomials of a linear ideal have to be very large. We do not restrict the tropical basis to consist of linear polynomials and therefore we get a shorter tropical basis. But the degrees of our polynomials can be very large. The main ingredient to get a short tropical basis is the use of projections, in particular geometrically regular projections. Together with the fact that preimages of projections of tropical varieties are themselves tropical varieties of a certain elimination ideal we get the desired result. Let $I \lhd K[x_1, \ldots, x_n]$ be an $m$-dimensional prime ideal and $\pi : \mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}^{m+1}$ be a rational projection. Then $\pi^{-1}(\pi(T(I)))$ is a tropical variety, namely \[ \pi^{-1}(\pi(T(I))) \ = \ T(J \cap K[x_1, \ldots, x_n]) \,\] Here $J$ is an ideal in $K[x_1,\ldots,x_n,\lambda_1,\ldots,\lambda_{n-m-1}]$ derived from the ideal $I$. We show that this elimination ideal is a principal ideal which yields a polynomial in our tropical basis. The advantage of our method is that we find our polynomials by projections and therefore we can use the results of Gelfand, Kapranov and Zelevinsky , of Esterov and Khovanskii , and of Sturmfels, Tevelev and Yu. With mixed fiber polytopes we get the structure and combinatorics of the image of a tropical variety and therefore the structure of the polynomials in our tropical basis. Let $I=\lhd K[x_1,\ldots,x_n]$ an $m$-dimensional ideal, generated by generic polynomials $f_1,\ldots, f_{n-m}$, $\pi:\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}^{m+1}$ a projection and $\psi$ a projection presented by a matrix with a rowspace equal to the kernel of $\pi$. Then up to affine isomorphisms, the cells of the dual subdivision of $\pi^{-1} \pi T(I)$ are of the form \[ \sum_{i=1}^p \Sigma_{\psi} (C_{i1}^{\vee}, \ldots, C_{i{k}}^{\vee}) \] for some $p\in\mathbb{N}$ and faces $F_1, \ldots, F_p$ of $T(f_1)\cap\ldots\cap T(f_k)$ and the dual cell of $F_i\subseteq U = T(f_1)\cup\ldots\cup T(f_k)$ is given by $F_i^\vee=C_{i1}^{\vee}+ \ldots+ C_{ik}^{\vee}$ with faces $C_{i1}, \ldots, C_{i k}$ of $T(f_1), \ldots, T(f_{k})$. In case that we project a tropical curve we want to find the number of $(n-1)$-cells of the above form with $p>1$, i.e. the cells which are dual to vertices of $\pi(T(I))$ which are the intersection of the images of two non-adjacent $1$-cells of $T(I)$. Vertices of this type are called selfintersection points. We show that there exist a tropcal line $L_n\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ and a projection $\pi:\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}^2$, such that $L_n$ has $\sum_{i=1}^{n-2}i$ selfintersection points. Furthermore we find tropical curves $\mathcal{C}\subset\mathbb{R}^n$, which are transversal intersections of $n-1$ tropical hypersurfaces of degrees $d_1,\ldots,d_{n-1}$ and a projection $\pi:\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}^2$, such that $\mathcal{C}$ has at least $(d_1\cdot\ldots\cdot d_{n-1})^2\cdot \sum_{i=1}^{n-2}i) $ selfintersection points. A caterpillar is a certain simple type of a tropical line and for this type we show that it can have at most $\sum_{i=1}^{n-2}i$ selfintersection points.

- Distributions of permutations generated by inhomogeneous Markov chains (2009)
- This work connects Markov chain imbedding technique (MCIT) introduced by M.V. Koutras and J.C. Fu with distributions concerning the cycle structure of permutations. As a final result program code is given that uses MCIT to deliver proper numerical values for these. The discrete distributions of interest are the one of the cycle structure, the one of the number of cycles, the one of the rth longest and shortest cycle and finally the length of a random chosen cycle. These are analyzed for equiprobable permutations as well as for biased ones. Analytical solutions and limit distributions are also considered to put the results on a safe, theoretical base.

- Generalized Gram–Hadamard inequality (1998)
- We generalize the classical Gram determinant inequality. Our generalization follows from the boundedness of the antisymmetric tensor product operator. We use fermionic Fock space methods. AMS 1991 Subject Classification: Primary: 15A15; Secondary: 45B05

- Synchronization of dissipative dynamical systems driven by non-Gaussian Lévy noises (2010)
- Dynamical systems driven by Gaussian noises have been considered extensively in modeling, simulation, and theory. However, complex systems in engineering and science are often subject to non-Gaussian fluctuations or uncertainties. A coupled dynamical system under a class of Lévy noises is considered. After discussing cocycle property, stationary orbits, and random attractors, a synchronization phenomenon is shown to occur, when the drift terms of the coupled system satisfy certain dissipativity and integrability conditions. The synchronization result implies that coupled dynamical systems share a dynamical feature in some asymptotic sense.