Why pitch sensitivity matters: event-related potential evidence of metric and syntactic violation detection among spanish late learners of german
Maria Paula Roncaglia-Denissen
Sonja A. Kotz
- Event-related potential (ERP) data in monolingual German speakers have shown that sentential metric expectancy violations elicit a biphasic ERP pattern consisting of an anterior negativity and a posterior positivity (P600). This pattern is comparable to that elicited by syntactic violations. However, proficient French late learners of German do not detect violations of metric expectancy in German. They also show qualitatively and quantitatively different ERP responses to metric and syntactic violations. We followed up the questions whether (1) latter evidence results from a potential pitch cue insensitivity in speech segmentation in French speakers, or (2) if the result is founded in rhythmic language differences. Therefore, we tested Spanish late learners of German, as Spanish, contrary to French, uses pitch as a segmentation cue even though the basic segmentation unit is the same in French and Spanish (i.e., the syllable). We report ERP responses showing that Spanish L2 learners are sensitive to syntactic as well as metric violations in German sentences independent of attention to task in a P600 response. Overall, the behavioral performance resembles that of German native speakers. The current data suggest that Spanish L2 learners are able to extract metric units (trochee) in their L2 (German) even though their basic segmentation unit in Spanish is the syllable. In addition Spanish in contrast to French L2 learners of German are sensitive to syntactic violations indicating a tight link between syntactic and metric competence. This finding emphasizes the relevant role of metric cues not only in L2 prosodic but also in syntactic processing.
Application of the liposuction techniques and principles in specific body areas and pathologies
Jorge A. D’Angelo
- The buttocks have been a symbol of attraction, sexuality and eroticism since ancient times and therefore, they have an important role in defining the posterior body contour. More and more people are talking about and understand the meaning and the role that buttocks play in modeling and physical beauty. The three dimensional gluteoplasty (3-DGP) is an innovative technique that allows us to change volume, shape and firmness, not only in the buttocks but also in the adjacent regions such as the thighs and trochanters, becoming an ideal tool to answer the frequent reasons of consultation of our patients about this particular area of the body: ...
Effect of using different U/S probe Standoff materials in image geometry for interventional procedures: the example of prostate
- PURPOSE: This study investigates the distortion of geometry of catheters and anatomy in acquired U/S images, caused by utilizing various stand-off materials for covering a transrectal bi-planar ultrasound probe in HDR and LDR prostate brachytherapy, biopsy and other interventional procedures. Furthermore, an evaluation of currently established water-bath based quality assurance (QA) procedures is presented.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Image acquisitions of an ultrasound QA setup were carried out at 5 MHz and 7 MHz. The U/S probe was covered by EA 4015 Silicone Standoff kit, or UA0059 Endocavity balloon filled either with water or one of the following: 40 ml of Endosgel(®), Instillagel(®), Ultraschall gel or Space OAR™ gel. The differences between images were recorded. Consequently, the dosimetric impact of the observed image distortion was investigated, using a tissue equivalent ultrasound prostate phantom - Model number 053 (CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA, USA).
RESULTS: By using the EA 4015 Silicone Standoff kit in normal water with sound speed of 1525 m/s, a 3 mm needle shift was observed. The expansion of objects appeared in radial direction. The shift deforms also the PTV (prostate in our case) and other organs at risk (OARs) in the same way leading to overestimation of volume and underestimation of the dose. On the other hand, Instillagel(®) and Space OAR™ "shrinks" objects in an ultrasound image for 0.65 mm and 0.40 mm, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of EA 4015 Silicone Standoff kit for image acquisition, leads to erroneous contouring of PTV and OARs and reconstruction and placement of catheters, which results to incorrect dose calculation during prostate brachytherapy. Moreover, the reliability of QA procedures lies mostly in the right temperature of the water used for accurate simulation of real conditions of transrectal ultrasound imaging.
Portal vein thrombosis and arterioportal shunts: effects on tumor response after chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma
Thomas J. Vogl
Nagy Naguib Naeem Naguib
- AIM: To evaluate the effect of portal vein thrombosis and arterioportal shunts on local tumor response in advanced cases of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma treated by transarterial chemoembolization.
METHODS: A retrospective study included 39 patients (mean age: 66.4 years, range: 45-79 years, SD: 7) with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who were treated with repetitive transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the period between March 2006 and October 2009. The effect of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) (in 19 out of 39 patients), the presence of arterioportal shunt (APS) (in 7 out of 39), the underlying liver pathology, Child-Pugh score, initial tumor volume, number of tumors and tumor margin definition on imaging were correlated with the local tumor response after TACE. The initial and end therapy local tumor responses were evaluated according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) and magnetic resonance imaging volumetric measurements.
RESULTS: The treatment protocols were well tolerated by all patients with no major complications. Local tumor response for all patients according to RECIST criteria were partial response in one patient (2.6%), stable disease in 34 patients (87.1%), and progressive disease in 4 patients (10.2%). The MR volumetric measurements showed that the PVT, APS, underlying liver pathology and tumor margin definition were statistically significant prognostic factors for the local tumor response (P = 0.018, P = 0.008, P = 0.034 and P = 0.001, respectively). The overall 6-, 12- and 18-mo survival rates from the initial TACE were 79.5%, 37.5% and 21%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: TACE may be exploited safely for palliative tumor control in patients with advanced unresectable HCC; however, tumor response is significantly affected by the presence or absence of PVT and APS.
Restriction of trophic factors and nutrients induces PARKIN expression
Jorge Antolio Dominguez Bautista
- Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most frequent neurodegenerative movement disorder and manifests at old age. While many details of its pathogenesis remain to be elucidated, in particular the protein and mitochondrial quality control during stress responses have been implicated in monogenic PD variants. Especially the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the ubiquitin ligase PARKIN are known to cooperate in autophagy after mitochondrial damage. As autophagy is also induced by loss of trophic signaling and PINK1 gene expression is modulated after deprivation of cytokines, we analyzed to what extent trophic signals and starvation stress regulate PINK1 and PARKIN expression. Time course experiments with serum deprivation and nutrient starvation of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and primary mouse neurons demonstrated phasic induction of PINK1 transcript up to twofold and PARKIN transcript levels up to sixfold. The corresponding threefold starvation induction of PARKIN protein was limited by its translocation to lysosomes. Analysis of primary mouse cells from PINK1-knockout mice indicated that PARKIN induction and lysosomal translocation occurred independent of PINK1. Suppression of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling by pharmacological agents modulated PARKIN expression accordingly. In conclusion, this expression survey demonstrates that PARKIN and PINK1 are coregulated during starvation and suggest a role of both PD genes in response to trophic signals and starvation stress.
kurz und kn@pp news : Nr. 22
- * Akkreditierung akademischer Forschungspraxen
* International Workshop on Collaborative Strategies in Multimorbidity
* Neukonzeption des Seminars Allgemeinmedizin
* Neues von der Arbeitsgruppe WiForMFA
* Onkologie in der Hausarztpraxis
kurz und kn@pp news : Nr. 23
- * PICANT-Studie
* Bundesweite Studie zur Berufszufriedenheit von Medizinischen Fachangestellten
* Patientensicherheitskultur in Hausarztpraxen
* Neue Professur im Institut für Allgemeinmedizin
Differential effects of high memory load and high item similarity on short-term recognition : an event-related potential study
- Working memory (WM) contributes to countless activities during everyday live: reading, holding a conversation, making tea and so on. The core processes of WM comprise the phases of encoding, maintenance and retrieval. Successful recognition of stored objects requires several subprocesses such as stimulus encoding and evaluation, memory search and the organisation of a decision and a response. Much research has focused on encoding and maintenance of information but little interest has been directed to the retrieval of information. This is why the present dissertation investigated the neuronal correlates of retrieval of previously stored information and its modulation by load and probe-item similarity.
Here memory load and probe-item similarity were manipulated in order to investigate the neuronal correlates of the recognition process using electroencephalography (EEG). We tested the hypothesis recognition is influenced differently by probe-item similarity and by memory load and that these factors are re Effected by distinct neuronal correlates. Furthermore we tested whether distinct neuronal responses could be related to a summed similarity model.
The analysis of high-density ERP recordings showed both a load effect (load 1>load 3) and a similarity effect In addition, there was an interaction between load and similarity. The load effect was present during the whole epoch and did not change over time, whereas the similarity effect showed two distinct components between 300-600ms. In contrast to the load effect the similarity effect changed its sign over time. For the rest component, match probes elicited the strongest ERP responses, whereas for the second component dissimilar probes yielded the strongest ERP responses. The timing of the similarity effect corresponded well with the early and late P3b complex. The P3b complex is associated with stimulus categorisation and evaluation (early subcomponent) and memory search and criterion testing (late subcomponent).
The results suggest that the difficulty of a task is not only determined by load but also enhanced by probe-item similarity. Since increasing the number of samples (i.e. memory load) can also increase the probe-item similarity (i.e. the probability that one of the samples is perceptually similar to the probe), an independent manipulation of both factors is indispensable to disentangle their particular impact on short-term recognition. Furthermore, I propose that the two distinct neural correlates of the P3b complex reeffects different stages of task processing connected with probe-item similarity. As suggested by summed similarity VI models, these components might reflect the subprocesses of similarity summation (early P3b) and criterion testing (late P3b).
A clinically relevant gene signature in triple negative and basal-like breast cancer
- INTRODUCTION: Current prognostic gene expression profiles for breast cancer mainly reflect proliferation status and are most useful in ER-positive cancers. Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) are clinically heterogeneous and prognostic markers and biology-based therapies are needed to better treat this disease.
METHODS: We assembled Affymetrix gene expression data for 579 TNBC and performed unsupervised analysis to define metagenes that distinguish molecular subsets within TNBC. We used n = 394 cases for discovery and n = 185 cases for validation. Sixteen metagenes emerged that identified basal-like, apocrine and claudin-low molecular subtypes, or reflected various non-neoplastic cell populations, including immune cells, blood, adipocytes, stroma, angiogenesis and inflammation within the cancer. The expressions of these metagenes were correlated with survival and multivariate analysis was performed, including routine clinical and pathological variables.
RESULTS: Seventy-three percent of TNBC displayed basal-like molecular subtype that correlated with high histological grade and younger age. Survival of basal-like TNBC was not different from non basal-like TNBC. High expression of immune cell metagenes was associated with good and high expression of inflammation and angiogenesis-related metagenes were associated with poor prognosis. A ratio of high B-cell and low IL-8 metagenes identified 32% of TNBC with good prognosis (hazard ratio (HR) 0.37, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.61; P < 0.001) and was the only significant predictor in multivariate analysis including routine clinicopathological variables.
CONCLUSIONS: We describe a ratio of high B-cell presence and low IL-8 activity as a powerful new prognostic marker for TNBC. Inhibition of the IL-8 pathway also represents an attractive novel therapeutic target for this disease.
Palliative Betreuung am Lebensende : Informationsbroschüre für Angehörige