kurz und kn@pp news : Nr. 2
- * Antrittsvorlesung zog zahlreiche Zuhörer an
* Fehlerberichtssystem mit dem Richard-Merten-Preis ausgezeichnet
* Zentrum für Gesundheitswissenschaften gegründet
* Die Zukunft ist chronisch...
* PRoMPT-Projekt hat begonnen – Mehr als 70 Praxisteams geschult
* Symposium E-Learning – Innovation für die medizinische Lehre
Protein C preserves microcirculation in a model of neonatal septic shock
Marcel Friedrich Nold
Claudia A. Nold-Petry
- Objectives: Sepsis remains a disease with a high mortality in neonates. Microcirculatory impairment plays a pivotal role in the development of multiorgan failure in septic newborns. The hemodynamic effects of recombinant activated protein C (rhAPC) were tested in an animal model of neonatal septic shock focusing on intestinal microcirculation.
Materials and methods: Endotoxic shock was triggered by intravenous application of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccarides in newborn piglets. Thereafter, five animals received a continuous infusion of 24 µg/kg/h rhAPC, and five received vehicle for control. Over the course of three hours, intestinal microcirculation was assessed by intravital microscopy every 30 min. Macrocirculation and blood counts were monitored simultaneously.
Results: After a short hypotensive period in all animals, the arterial blood pressure returned to baseline in the rhAPC-treated piglets, whereas the hypotension became increasingly severe in the controls. By 90 min, mean blood pressure in the controls was significantly lower than in the treatment group. Similar observations were made regaring microcirculation. After an early impairment in all study animals, functional capillary density and intestinal microcirculatory red blood cell velocity and red blood cell flow recovered in the rhAPC group, but deteriorated further in the control piglets.
Conclusion: Recombinant activated protein C protects macro- and microcirculation from endotoxic shock.
IAPs on the move: role of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in cell migration
Tripat Kaur Oberoi-Khanuja
- Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) are a class of highly conserved proteins predominantly known for the regulation of caspases and immune signaling. However, recent evidence suggests a crucial role for these molecules in the regulation of tumor cell shape and migration by controlling MAPK, NF-κB and Rho GTPases. IAPs directly control Rho GTPases, thus regulating cell shape and migration. For instance, XIAP and cIAP1 function as the direct E3 ubiquitin ligases of Rac1 and target it for proteasomal degradation. IAPs are differentially expressed in tumor cells and have been targeted by several cancer therapeutic drugs that are currently in clinical trials. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of IAPs in the regulation of cell migration and discuss the possible implications of these observations in regulating tumor cell metastases.
Bemerkungen zur schnappenden Hüfte
Der Schlaganfall : eine Herausforderung für die klinische Forschung
- Hinter dem Begriff "Schlaganfall" verbergen sich verschiedene Krankheitsbilder, die durch gemeinsame Merkmale gekennzeichnet sind: Die Beschwerden treten akut auf, oftmals von einer Sekunde zur anderen. Ein Schlagfall ist darüber hinaus durch das Auftreten von charakteristischen neurologischen Symptomen gekennzeichnet, wie halbseitige Lähmungen, Sprach-, Seh- oder Gefühlsstörungen. Die Ursache hierfür liegt in Veränderungen in den Blutgefäßen des Gehirns, wie die Autoren erläutern.
MicroRNAs in age-related diseases
- Aging is a complex process that is linked to an increased incidence of major diseases such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease, but also cancer and immune disorders. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which post-transcriptionally control gene expression by inhibiting translation or inducing degradation of targeted mRNAs. MiRNAs target up to hundreds of mRNAs, thereby modulating gene expression patterns. Many miRNAs appear to be dysregulated during cellular senescence, aging and disease. However, only few miRNAs have been so far linked to age-related changes in cellular and organ functions. The present article will discuss these findings, specifically focusing on the cardiovascular and neurological systems.
Reduced migration of MLH1 deficient colon cancer cells depends on SPTAN1
Benjamin Philipp Ernst
- Introduction: Defects in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein MLH1 are frequently observed in sporadic and hereditary colorectal cancers (CRC). Affected tumors generate much less metastatic potential than the MLH1 proficient forms. Although MLH1 has been shown to be not only involved in postreplicative MMR but also in several MMR independent processes like cytoskeletal organization, the connection between MLH1 and metastasis remains unclear. We recently identified non-erythroid spectrin αII (SPTAN1), a scaffolding protein involved in cell adhesion and motility, to interact with MLH1. In the current study, the interaction of MLH1 and SPTAN1 and its potential consequences for CRC metastasis was evaluated.
Methods: Nine cancer cell lines as well as fresh and paraffin embedded colon cancer tissue from 12 patients were used in gene expression studies of SPTAN1 and MLH1. Co-expression of SPTAN1 and MLH1 was analyzed by siRNA knock down of MLH1 in HeLa, HEK293, MLH1 positive HCT116, SW480 and LoVo cells. Effects on cellular motility were determined in MLH1 deficient HCT116 and MLH1 deficient HEK293T compared to their MLH1 proficient sister cells, respectively.
Results: MLH1 deficiency is clearly associated with SPTAN1 reduction. Moreover, siRNA knock down of MLH1 decreased the mRNA level of SPTAN1 in HeLa, HEK293 as well as in MLH1 positive HCT116 cells, which indicates a co-expression of SPTAN1 by MLH1. In addition, cellular motility of MLH1 deficient HCT116 and MLH1 deficient HEK293T cells was impaired compared to the MLH1 proficient sister clones. Consequently, overexpression of SPTAN1 increased migration of MLH1 deficient cells while knock down of SPTAN1 decreased cellular mobility of MLH1 proficient cells, indicating SPTAN1-dependent migration ability.
Conclusions: These data suggest that SPTAN1 levels decreased in concordance with MLH1 reduction and impaired cellular mobility in MLH1 deficient colon cancer cells. Therefore, aggressiveness of MLH1-positive CRC might be related to SPTAN1.
52-week efficacy and safety of telbivudine with conditional tenofovir intensification at week 24 in HBeAg-positive chronic Hepatitis B
Henry L. Y. Chan
Mário G. Pessôa
Suzane K. Ono
- Background and Aims: The Roadmap concept is a therapeutic framework in chronic hepatitis B for the intensification of nucleoside analogue monotherapy based on early virologic response. The efficacy and safety of this approach applied to telbivudine treatment has not been investigated.
Methods: A multinational, phase IV, single-arm open-label study (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT00651209) was undertaken in HBeAg-positive, nucleoside-naive adult patients with chronic hepatitis B. Patients received telbivudine (600 mg once-daily) for 24 weeks, after which those with undetectable serum HBV DNA (<300 copies/mL) continued to receive telbivudine alone while those with detectable DNA received telbivudine plus tenofovir (300 mg once-daily). Outcomes were assessed at Week 52.
Results: 105 patients commenced telbivudine monotherapy, of whom 100 were included in the efficacy analysis. Fifty-five (55%) had undetectable HBV DNA at Week 24 and continued telbivudine monotherapy; 45 (45%) received tenofovir intensification. At Week 52, the overall proportion of undetectable HBV DNA was 93% (93/100) by last-observation-carried-forward analysis (100% monotherapy group, 84% intensification group) and no virologic breakthroughs had occurred. ALT normalization occurred in 77% (87% monotherapy, 64% intensification), HBeAg clearance in 43% (65% monotherapy, 16% intensification), and HBeAg seroconversion in 39% (62% monotherapy, 11% intensification). Six patients had HBsAg clearance. Myalgia was more common in the monotherapy group (19% versus 7%). No decrease in the mean glomerular filtration rate occurred in either treatment group at Week 52.
Conclusions: Telbivudine therapy with tenofovir intensification at Week 24, where indicated by the Roadmap strategy, appears effective and well tolerated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00651209
Serum microRNA-122 predicts survival in patients with liver cirrhosis
- BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. MicroRNAs (miRs) circulating in the blood are an emerging new class of biomarkers. In particular, the serum level of the liver-specific miR-122 might be a clinically useful new parameter in patients with acute or chronic liver disease.
AIM: Here we investigated if the serum level of miR-122 might be a prognostic parameter in patients with liver cirrhosis.
METHODS: 107 patients with liver cirrhosis in the test cohort and 143 patients in the validation cohort were prospectively enrolled into the present study. RNA was extracted from the sera obtained at the time of study enrollment and the level of miR-122 was assessed. Serum miR-122 levels were assessed by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and were compared to overall survival time and to different complications of liver cirrhosis.
RESULTS: Serum miR-122 levels were reduced in patients with hepatic decompensation in comparison to patients with compensated liver disease. Patients with ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome had significantly lower miR-122 levels than patients without these complications. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the miR-122 serum levels were associated with survival independently from the MELD score, sex and age.
CONCLUSIONS: Serum miR-122 is a new independent marker for prediction of survival of patients with liver cirrhosis.
Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging for differentiation of thyroid nodules
- Background: Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI)-Imaging is an ultrasound-based elastography method enabling
quantitative measurement of tissue stiffness. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of ARFIimaging
for differentiation of thyroid nodules and to compare it to the well evaluated qualitative real-time elastography
Methods: ARFI-imaging involves the mechanical excitation of tissue using acoustic pulses to generate localized
displacements resulting in shear-wave propagation which is tracked using correlation-based methods and recorded in m/s.
Inclusion criteria were: nodules $5 mm, and cytological/histological assessment. All patients received conventional
ultrasound, real-time elastography (RTE) and ARFI-imaging.
Results: One-hundred-fifty-eight nodules in 138 patients were available for analysis. One-hundred-thirty-seven nodules
were benign on cytology/histology, and twenty-one nodules were malignant. The median velocity of ARFI-imaging in the
healthy thyroid tissue, as well as in benign and malignant thyroid nodules was 1.76 m/s, 1.90 m/s, and 2.69 m/s,
respectively. While no significant difference in median velocity was found between healthy thyroid tissue and benign
thyroid nodules, a significant difference was found between malignant thyroid nodules on the one hand and healthy
thyroid tissue (p = 0.0019) or benign thyroid nodules (p = 0.0039) on the other hand. No significant difference of diagnostic
accuracy for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules was found between RTE and ARFI-imaging (0.74 vs. 0.69, p = 0.54).
The combination of RTE with ARFI did not improve diagnostic accuracy.
Conclusions: ARFI can be used as an additional tool in the diagnostic work up of thyroid nodules with high negative
predictive value and comparable results to RTE.