Institut für Ökologie, Evolution und Diversität
Invasive Ponto-Caspian amphipods and fish increase the distribution range of the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus tereticollis in the river Rhine
Harry W. Palm
- Non-indigenous species that become invasive are one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss worldwide. In various freshwater systems in Europe, populations of native amphipods and fish are progressively displaced by highly adaptive non-indigenous species that can perform explosive range extensions. A total of 40 Ponto-Caspian round gobies Neogobius melanostomus from the Rhine River near Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, were examined for metazoan parasites and feeding ecology. Three metazoan parasite species were found: two Nematoda and one Acanthocephala. The two Nematoda, Raphidascaris acus and Paracuaria adunca, had a low prevalence of 2.5%. The Acanthocephala, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis, was the predominant parasite species, reaching a level of 90.0% prevalence in the larval stage, correlated with fish size. In addition, four invasive amphipod species, Corophium curvispinum (435 specimens), Dikerogammarus villosus (5,454), Echinogammarus trichiatus (2,695) and Orchestia cavimana (1,448) were trapped at the sampling site. Only D. villosus was infected with P. tereticollis at a prevalence of 0.04%. The invasive goby N. melanostomus mainly preys on these non-indigenous amphipods, and may have replaced native amphipods in the transmission of P. tereticollis into the vertebrate paratenic host. This study gives insight into a potential parasite-host system that consists mainly of invasive species, such as the Ponto-Caspian fish and amphipods in the Rhine. We discuss prospective distribution and migration pathways of non-indigenous vertebrate (round goby) and invertebrates (amphipods) under special consideration of parasite dispersal.
Host genotype shapes the foliar fungal microbiome of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera)
Robert B. O'Hara
Matthew S. Olson
Johnathon D. Fankhauser
- Foliar fungal communities of plants are diverse and ubiquitous. In grasses endophytes may increase host fitness; in trees, their ecological roles are poorly understood. We investigated whether the genotype of the host tree influences community structure of foliar fungi. We sampled leaves from genotyped balsam poplars from across the species' range, and applied 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize foliar fungal communities. At the time of the sampling the poplars had been growing in a common garden for two years. We found diverse fungal communities associated with the poplar leaves. Linear discriminant analysis and generalized linear models showed that host genotypes had a structuring effect on the composition of foliar fungal communities. The observed patterns may be explained by a filtering mechanism which allows the trees to selectively recruit fungal strains from the environment. Alternatively, host genotype-specific fungal communities may be present in the tree systemically, and persist in the host even after two clonal reproductions. Both scenarios are consistent with host tree adaptation to specific foliar fungal communities and suggest that there is a functional basis for the strong biotic interaction.
The evolutionary paradox of tooth wear: simply destruction or inevitable adaptation?
Huynh Nhu Nguyen
Ian R. Grosse
- Over the last century, humans from industrialized societies have witnessed a radical increase in some dental diseases. A severe problem concerns the loss of dental materials (enamel and dentine) at the buccal cervical region of the tooth. This “modern-day” pathology, called non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs), is ubiquitous and worldwide spread, but is very sporadic in modern humans from pre-industrialized societies. Scholars believe that several factors are involved, but the real dynamics behind this pathology are far from being understood. Here we use an engineering approach, finite element analysis (FEA), to suggest that the lack of dental wear, characteristic of industrialized societies, might be a major factor leading to NCCLs. Occlusal loads were applied to high resolution finite element models of lower second premolars (P2) to demonstrate that slightly worn P2s envisage high tensile stresses in the buccal cervical region, but when worn down artificially in the laboratory the pattern of stress distribution changes and the tensile stresses decrease, matching the results obtained in naturally worn P2s. In the modern industrialized world, individuals at advanced ages show very moderate dental wear when compared to past societies, and teeth are exposed to high tensile stresses at the buccal cervical region for decades longer. This is the most likely mechanism explaining enamel loss in the cervical region, and may favor the activity of other disruptive processes such as biocorrosion. Because of the lack of dental abrasion, our masticatory apparatus faces new challenges that can only be understood in an evolutionary perspective.
Use of axonal projection patterns for the homologisation of cerebral nerves in Opisthobranchia, Mollusca and Gastropoda
Roger P. Croll
- Introduction: Gastropoda are guided by several sensory organs in the head region, referred to as cephalic sensory organs (CSOs). These CSOs are innervated by distinct nerves. This study proposes a unified terminology for the cerebral nerves and the categories of CSOs and then investigates the neuroanatomy and cellular innervation patterns of these cerebral nerves, in order to homologise them. The homologisation of the cerebral nerves in conjunction with other data, e.g. ontogenetic development or functional morphology, may then provide insights into the homology of the CSOs themselves.
Results: Nickel-lysine axonal tracing (“backfilling”) was used to stain the somata projecting into specific nerves in representatives of opisthobranch Gastropoda. Tracing patterns revealed the occurrence, size and relative position of somata and their axons and enabled these somata to be mapped to specific cell clusters. Assignment of cells to clusters followed a conservative approach based primarily on relative location of the cells. Each of the four investigated cerebral nerves could be uniquely identified due to a characteristic set of soma clusters projecting into the respective nerves via their axonal pathways.
Conclusions: As the described tracing patterns are highly conserved morphological characters, they can be used to homologise nerves within the investigated group of gastropods. The combination of adequate number of replicates and a comparative approach allows us to provide preliminary hypotheses on homologies for the cerebral nerves. Based on the hypotheses regarding cerebral nerve homology together with further data on ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry of CSOs published elsewhere, we can propose preliminary hypotheses regarding homology for the CSOs of the Opisthobranchia themselves.
Coalescent-based genome analyses resolve the early branches of the euarchontoglires
Björn M. Hallström
- Despite numerous large-scale phylogenomic studies, certain parts of the mammalian tree are extraordinarily difficult to resolve. We used the coding regions from 19 completely sequenced genomes to study the relationships within the super-clade Euarchontoglires (Primates, Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Dermoptera and Scandentia) because the placement of Scandentia within this clade is controversial. The difficulty in resolving this issue is due to the short time spans between the early divergences of Euarchontoglires, which may cause incongruent gene trees. The conflict in the data can be depicted by network analyses and the contentious relationships are best reconstructed by coalescent-based analyses. This method is expected to be superior to analyses of concatenated data in reconstructing a species tree from numerous gene trees. The total concatenated dataset used to study the relationships in this group comprises 5,875 protein-coding genes (9,799,170 nucleotides) from all orders except Dermoptera (flying lemurs). Reconstruction of the species tree from 1,006 gene trees using coalescent models placed Scandentia as sister group to the primates, which is in agreement with maximum likelihood analyses of concatenated nucleotide sequence data. Additionally, both analytical approaches favoured the Tarsier to be sister taxon to Anthropoidea, thus belonging to the Haplorrhine clade. When divergence times are short such as in radiations over periods of a few million years, even genome scale analyses struggle to resolve phylogenetic relationships. On these short branches processes such as incomplete lineage sorting and possibly hybridization occur and make it preferable to base phylogenomic analyses on coalescent methods.
Do contaminants originating from state-of-the-art treated wastewater impact the ecological quality of surface waters?
- Since the 1980s, advances in wastewater treatment technology have led to considerably improved surface water quality in the urban areas of many high income countries. However, trace concentrations of organic wastewater-associated contaminants may still pose a key environmental hazard impairing the ecological quality of surface waters. To identify key impact factors, we analyzed the effects of a wide range of anthropogenic and environmental variables on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community. We assessed ecological water quality at 26 sampling sites in four urban German lowland river systems with a 0–100% load of state-of-the-art biological activated sludge treated wastewater. The chemical analysis suite comprised 12 organic contaminants (five phosphor organic flame retardants, two musk fragrances, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol, diethyltoluamide, terbutryn), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 12 heavy metals. Non-metric multidimensional scaling identified organic contaminants that are mainly wastewater-associated (i.e., phosphor organic flame retardants, musk fragrances, and diethyltoluamide) as a major impact variable on macroinvertebrate species composition. The structural degradation of streams was also identified as a significant factor. Multiple linear regression models revealed a significant impact of organic contaminants on invertebrate populations, in particular on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera species. Spearman rank correlation analyses confirmed wastewater-associated organic contaminants as the most significant variable negatively impacting the biodiversity of sensitive macroinvertebrate species. In addition to increased aquatic pollution with organic contaminants, a greater wastewater fraction was accompanied by a slight decrease in oxygen concentration and an increase in salinity. This study highlights the importance of reducing the wastewater-associated impact on surface waters. For aquatic ecosystems in urban areas this would lead to: (i) improvement of the ecological integrity, (ii) reduction of biodiversity loss, and (iii) faster achievement of objectives of legislative requirements, e.g., the European Water Framework Directive.
Assessing the combined effects of xenobiotics, climate change and predators on aquatic organisms in multiple stressor experiments - a case study with pyrimethanil
- The environmental impact of climate change is meanwhile not only discussed in the scientific community but also in the general public. However, little is known about the interaction between climate change and pollutants like pesticides. A combination of multiple stressors (e.g. temperature, pollutants, predators) may lead to severe alterations for organisms such as changes in time of reproduction, reproductive success and growth performance, mortality and geographic distribution. The questions if aquatic organisms tend to react more sensitive towards incidents under climate change conditions remains. Therefore, within the present thesis the aquatic ecotoxicological profile of the fungicide pyrimethanil, as an exemplarily anthropogenic used contaminant, was examined.
A large test battery of ecotoxicological standard tests and supplement bioassays with non-model species was conducted to investigate if species-specific or life stage-specific differences occur or if temperature alteration may change the impact of the fungicide. Two of the most sensitive species (Chironomus riparius and Daphnia magna) were used to investigate the acute and chronic thermal dependence of pyrimethanil effects. The results clearly depict that the ecotoxicity of pyrimethanil at optimal thermal conditions did not depend on the trophic level, but was species-specific. With regard to EC10 values the acute pyrimethanil toxicity on C. riparius increased with higher temperature (6.78 mg L-1 at 14°C and 3.06 mg L-1 at 26°C). The chronic response of D. magna to the NOEC (no observed effect concentration) of the fungicide (0.5 mg L-1) was examined in an experiment which lasted for several generations under three simulated near-natural temperature regimes (‘cold year, today’ (11 to 22.7°C), ‘warm year, today’ (14 to 25.2°C) and ‘warm year, 2080’ (16.5 to 28.1°C)). A pyrimethanil-induced mortality increase was buffered by the strongly related increase of the general reproductive capacity, while population growth was stronger influenced by temperature than by the fungicide. At a further pyrimethanil concentration (LOEC – lowest observed effect concentration: 1 mg L-1), a second generation could not be established by D. magna under all thermal regimes.
Besides daphnids, the midge C. riparius was used for a second multigeneration study. In a bifactorial test design it was tested if climate change conditions alter or affect the impact of a low fungicide concentration on life history and genetic diversity. The NOAEC/2 (half of the no observed adverse effect concentration derived from a standard toxicity test) was used as a low pyrimethanil concentration to which laboratory populations of the midges were chronically exposed under the mentioned temperature scenarios. During the 140-day-multigeneration study, survival, emergence, reproduction, population growth, and genetic diversity of C. riparius were analyzed. The results reveal that high temperatures and pyrimethanil act synergistically on life history parameters of C. riparius. In simulated present-day scenarios, a NOAEC/2 of pyrimethanil provoked only slight to moderate beneficial or adverse effects. In contrast, an exposure to a NOAEC/2 concentration of pyrimethanil at a thermal situation likely for a summer under the future expactations uncovered adverse effects on mortality and population growth rate. In addition, genetic diversity was considerably reduced by pyrimethanil in the ‘warm year, 2080’ scenario, but only slightly under current climatic conditions. The multigeneration studies under near-natural thermal conditions indicate that not only the impact of climate change, but also low concentrations of pesticides may pose a reasonable risk for aquatic invertebrates in the future. This clearly shows that thermal and multigenerational effects should be considered when appraising the ecotoxicity of pesticides and assessing their future risk for the environment.
In addition to temperature further multiple abiotic and biotic stressors alterate pollutant effects. Moreover, to better discriminate and understand the intrinsic and environmental correlates of changing aquatic ecosystems, it was experimentally unraveled how the effects of a low-dose of pyrimethanil on daphnids becomes modified by different temperatures (15°C, 20°C, 25°C) and in the presence/ absence of predator kairomones of Chaoborus flavicans larvae. The usage of a fractional multifactorial test design provided the possibility to investigate the individual growth, reproduction and population growth rate of Daphnia pulex via different exposure routes to the fungicide pyrimethanil at an environmentally relevant concentration (0.05 mg L-1) - either directly (via the water phase), indirectly (via algae food), dually (via water and food) or for multiple generations (fungicide treated source population).
The number of neonates increased with increasing temperatures. At a temperature of 25°C no significant differences between the individual treatment groups were observed although the growth was overall inhibited due to pyrimethanil. Besides, at 15 and 20°C it is obvious that daphnids which were fed with contaminated algae had the lowest reproduction and growth rate. The obtained results clearly demonstrate that multiple stress factors can modify the response of daphnids to pollutants. The exposure routes of the contaminant are of minor importance, while temperature and the presence of a predator are the dominant factors impacting the reproduction of D. pulex. It can be concluded that low concentrations of pyrimethanil may disturb the zooplankton community at suboptimal temperature conditions, but the effects will become masked if chaoborid larvae are present. Therefore it seems necessary to observe prospectively if the combination of several stress factors like pesticide exposure and suboptimal temperature may influence the life history and sensitivity of several aquatic invertebrates differently.
Besides standard test organisms it is inevitable to conduct test with aquatic invertebrate which are not yet considered regularly in ecotoxicological experiments. For example molluscs represent one of the largest phyla of macroinvertebrates with more than 100.000 species, being ecologically and economically important. Therefore, within the present study embryo, juvenile, half- and full-life cycle toxicity tests with the snail Physella acuta were performed to investigate the impact of pollutants on various life stages. Different concentrations of pyrimethanil (0.06-0.5 or 1.0 mg L-1) assessed at three temperatures (15°C, 20°C, 25°C) revealed that pyrimethanil caused concentration-dependent effects independent of temperature. Interestingly, the ecotoxicity of pyrimethanil was higher at lower temperature for the embryo hatching and F1 reproduction, but its ecotoxicity for the growth of juveniles and the F0 reproduction increased with increasing temperature. More specifically, it could have been observed that especially during the reproduction test high mortality rates occurred at the highest concentration of 1 mg L-1 at all temperatures. Due to high mortality rates no snails were available for the F1 at the highest concentrations (0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1). Compared to the F0, overall more egg masses were produced in the F1, being all fertile and no mortality occurred. For the F1-generation the strongest pyrimethanil effects were detected at 15°C. A comparison of effect concentrations between both generations showed that the F1 is more sensitive than the F0.
These results indicate that an exposure over more than one generation may give a better overview of the impact of xenobiotics. With the establishment of an embryo and reproduction test under different temperatures and various concentrations of pyrimethanil with P. acuta we could successfully show that molluscs can respond more sensitive than model organisms and that both, chemical and thermal stressor strongly influence the behaviour of the pulmonates. It can be concluded that the high susceptibility for the fungicide observed in gastropods clearly demonstrates the complexity of pesticide-temperature interactions and the challenge to draw conclusions for the ecotoxicological risk assessment of pesticides under the impact of global climate change.
Predator avoidance in extremophile fish
Jeane Rimber Indy
- Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.
Movement behaviour and seed dispersal patterns of trumpeter hornbills (Bycanistes bucinator) in fragmented landscapes
- Long-distance seed dispersal is a crucial process allowing the dispersal of fleshy-fruited tree species among forest fragments. In particular, large frugivorous bird species have a high potential to provide inter-patch and long-distance seed transport, both important for maintaining fundamental genetic and demographic processes of plant populations in isolated forest fragments. In the face of increasing worldwide forest fragmentation, the investigation of long-distance seed dispersal and the factors influencing seed dispersal processes has recently become a central issue in ecology. In my thesis, I studied the movement behaviour and the seed dispersal patterns of the trumpeter hornbill (Bycanistes bucinator), a large obligate frugivorous bird, in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. I investigated (i) the potential of trumpeter hornbills to provide long-distance seed dispersal within different landscape structures, (ii) seasonal variations in ranging behaviour of this species, and (iii) the potential of this species to enhance the functional connectivity of a fragmented landscape. I used highresolution GPS-data loggers to record temporally and spatially fine-scaled movement data of trumpeter hornbills within both continuous forests and fragmented agricultural landscapes during the breeding- and the non-breeding season. First, combining these data with data on seed-retention times, I calculated seed dispersal kernels, able to distinguish between seed dispersal kernels from the continuous forests and those from the fragmented agricultural landscapes. The seed dispersal distributions showed a generally high ability of trumpeter hornbills to generate seed transport over a distance of more than 100 m and for potential dispersal distances of up to 14.5 km. Seed dispersal distributions were considerably different between the two landscape types, with a bimodal distribution showing larger dispersal distances for fragmented agricultural landscapes and a unimodal one for continuous forests. My results showed that the landscape structure strongly influenced the movement behaviour of trumpeter hornbills, and this variation in behaviour is likely reflected in the shape of the seed dispersal distributions. Second, for each individual bird I calculated daily ranges and investigated differences in daily ranging behaviour and in the process of range expansion comparatively between the breeding- and the non-breeding season. I considered differences in habitat use and possible consequences resulting for seed dispersal function during different seasons. I found that within the breeding season multi-day ranges were built from strongly overlapping and nearly stationary daily ranges which were almost completely restricted to continuous forest. In the non-breeding season, however, birds assembled multi-day ranges by shifting their range site to a generally different area, frequently utilizing the fragmented agricultural landscape. Thereby, several small daily ranges and few large daily ranges composed larger multi-day ranges within the non-breeding season. Seasonal differences in ranging behaviour and range assembly processes resulted in important consequences for seed dispersal function, with short distances and less spatial variation during the breeding season and more inter-patch dispersal across the fragmented landscape during the non-breeding season. Last, I used a projection of simulated seed dispersal events on a high-resolution habitat map to assess the extent to which trumpeter hornbills potentially facilitate functional connectivity between plant populations of isolated forest fragments. About 7% of dispersal events resulted in potential between-patch dispersal and trumpeter hornbills connected a network of about 100 forest patches with an overall extent of about 50 km. Trumpeter hornbills increased the potential of functional connectivity of the landscape more than twofold and seed dispersal pathways revealed certain forest patches as important stepping-stones for seed dispersal among forest fragments. Overall, my study highlights the overriding role that large frugivorous bird species, like trumpeter hornbills, play in seed dispersal in fragmented landscapes. In addition, it shows the importance of fine-scaled movement data combined with high-resolution habitat data and consideration of different landscape structures and seasonality for a comprehensive understanding of seed dispersal function.
Adaptive Radiation und Zoogeographie anisakider Nematoden verschiedener Klimazonen und Ozeane
- Anisakide Nematoden sind Parasiten aquatischer Organismen und weltweit in marinen Habitaten verbreitet. Ihre Übertragungswege sind tief im marinen Nahrungsnetz verwurzelt und schließen ein breites Spektrum pelagisch/benthischer Invertebraten (z.B. Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, Crustacea, Polychaeta) und Vertebraten (z.B. Teleostei, Elasmobranchia, Cetacea, Pinnipedia, Aves) als Zwischen- bzw. Endwirte ein. Aufgrund der hohen Befallszahlen u.a. in der Muskulatur und Viszera kommerziell intensiv genutzter Fischarten (z.B. Clupea harengus, Gadus morhua, Salmo salar) sowie ihrer Rolle als Auslöser der menschlichen Anisakiasis nehmen die Vertreter der Gattung Anisakis unter den anisakiden Nematoden eine Sonderstellung ein. Anhand der verbesserten Diagnostik und der Etablierung sowie Weiterentwicklung molekularbiologischer Methoden ist es in den letzten zwei Dekaden gelungen, die bestehende Taxonomie und Systematik der Gattung Anisakis zu erweitern bzw. zu revidieren. Aktuelle molekulare Analysen weisen auf die Existenz von insgesamt neun distinkten Arten hin, welche eine hohe genetische Heterogenität und Wirtsspezifität aufweisen, äußerlich jedoch nahezu identisch sind (sog. kryptische Arten). Trotz kontinuierlicher Forschung auf dem Gebiet ist das Wissen über die Biologie von Anisakis immer noch unzureichend.
Die vorliegende Dissertation ist in kumulativer Form verfasst und umfasst drei (ISI-) Einzelpublikationen. Die Zielsetzung der durchgeführten Studien bestand unter anderem darin, unter Verwendung molekularbiologischer und computergestützter Analyseverfahren, Fragestellungen zur Zoogeographie, (Co-)Phylogenie, Artdiagnostik, Lebenszyklus-Ökologie sowie des bioindikatorischen Potentials dieser Gattung zu bearbeiten und bestehende Wissenslücken zu schließen.
Die Verbreitung von Anisakis, welche bisher ausschließlich anhand von biogeographischen Einzelnachweisen abgeschätzt wurde, konnte durch den angewandten Modellierungsansatz erstmalig interpoliert und in Kartenform vergleichend dargestellt werden. Dabei wurde gezeigt, dass die Verbreitung von Anisakis spp. in den Ozeanen und Klimazonen nicht gleichmäßig ist. Die Analysen deuten auf die Existenz spezies-spezifischer horizontaler und vertikaler Verbreitungsmuster hin, welche neben abiotischen Faktoren durch die Verbreitung und Abundanz der jeweiligen Zwischen- und Endwirte sowie deren Tiefenverteilung und Nahrungspräferenzen geprägt sind.
Durch die umfangreiche Zusammenstellung und anschließende Kategorisierung der (mit molekularen Methoden) geführten Zwischenwirtsnachweise konnten indirekte Rückschlüsse über die vertikale Verbreitung von Anisakis spp. entlang der Tiefenhabitate gezogen werden.
Während Anisakis auf Gattungsebene in der gesamten Wassersäule entlang verschiedener Tiefenhabitate abundant ist, wurde für die stenoxene Art Anisakis paggiae ein meso-/bathypelagisch orientierter Lebenszyklus postuliert. Durch den Einbezug eines breiten Spektrums (paratenischer) Zwischen- und Transportwirte aus unterschiedlichen trophischen Ebenen werden Transmissionslücken im Lebenszyklus der Gattung weitestgehend minimiert und der Transmissionserfolg auf den Endwirt, und damit die Wahrscheinlichkeit einer erfolgreichen Reproduktion, erhöht. Ausgeprägte Wirtspräferenzen sowie phylogenetische Analysen des ribosomalen ITS-Markers stützen eine Theorie zur co-evolutiven Anpassung der Parasiten an ihre Endwirte. Anisakis eignet sich daher unter Einschränkungen als Bioindikator für die vertikale und horizontale Verbreitung und Abundanz der Endwirte und lässt Rückschlüsse auf trophische Interaktionen im Nahrungsnetz zu. Durch die weitere Beprobung von Zwischenwirten aus verschiedenen trophischen Ebenen in zukünftigen Studien, kann eine genauere Bewertung potentiell abweichender Lebenszyklus-Strategien gewährleistet werden. Insbesondere ist die Datenlage zur Prävalenz und Abundanz anisakider Nematoden in Cephalopoda und Crustacea noch unzureichend. Die Probennahme sollte dabei unter besonderer Berücksichtigung bislang wenig oder unbeprobter geographischer Regionen, Tiefenhabitate und Wirtsarten durchgeführt werden.