## Technical report Frank / Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universität, Fachbereich Informatik und Mathematik, Institut für Informatik

### Refine

#### Year of publication

#### Keywords

- Lambda-Kalkül (14)
- Formale Semantik (8)
- Nebenläufigkeit (6)
- Programmiersprache (5)
- Verifikation (4)
- Funktionale Programmierung (3)
- Logik (3)
- Operationale Semantik (3)
- functional programming languages (3)
- lambda calculus (3)

- 26
- Program equivalence for a concurrent lambda calculus with futures (2006)
- Reasoning about the correctness of program transformations requires a notion of program equivalence. We present an observational semantics for the concurrent lambda calculus with futures Lambda(fut), which formalizes the operational semantics of the programming language Alice ML. We show that natural program optimizations, as well as partial evaluation with respect to deterministic rules, are correct for Lambda(fut). This relies on a number of fundamental properties that we establish for our observational semantics.

- 17
- Realising nondeterministic I/O in the Glasgow Haskell Compiler (2003)
- In this paper we demonstrate how to relate the semantics given by the nondeterministic call-by-need calculus FUNDIO [SS03] to Haskell. After introducing new correct program transformations for FUNDIO, we translate the core language used in the Glasgow Haskell Compiler into the FUNDIO language, where the IO construct of FUNDIO corresponds to direct-call IO-actions in Haskell. We sketch the investigations of [Sab03b] where a lot of program transformations performed by the compiler have been shown to be correct w.r.t. the FUNDIO semantics. This enabled us to achieve a FUNDIO-compatible Haskell-compiler, by turning o not yet investigated transformations and the small set of incompatible transformations. With this compiler, Haskell programs which use the extension unsafePerformIO in arbitrary contexts, can be compiled in a "safe" manner.

- 48
- An abstract machine for concurrent Haskell with futures (2012)
- We show how Sestoft’s abstract machine for lazy evaluation of purely functional programs can be extended to evaluate expressions of the calculus CHF – a process calculus that models Concurrent Haskell extended by imperative and implicit futures. The abstract machine is modularly constructed by first adding monadic IO-actions to the machine and then in a second step we add concurrency. Our main result is that the abstract machine coincides with the original operational semantics of CHF, w.r.t. may- and should-convergence.

- 24
- A call-by-need lambda-calculus with locally bottom-avoiding choice: context lemma and correctness of transformations (2006)
- We present a higher-order call-by-need lambda calculus enriched with constructors, case-expressions, recursive letrec-expressions, a seq-operator for sequential evaluation and a non-deterministic operator amb, which is locally bottom-avoiding. We use a small-step operational semantics in form of a normal order reduction. As equational theory we use contextual equivalence, i.e. terms are equal if plugged into an arbitrary program context their termination behaviour is the same. We use a combination of may- as well as must-convergence, which is appropriate for non-deterministic computations. We evolve different proof tools for proving correctness of program transformations. We provide a context lemma for may- as well as must- convergence which restricts the number of contexts that need to be examined for proving contextual equivalence. In combination with so-called complete sets of commuting and forking diagrams we show that all the deterministic reduction rules and also some additional transformations keep contextual equivalence. In contrast to other approaches our syntax as well as semantics does not make use of a heap for sharing expressions. Instead we represent these expressions explicitely via letrec-bindings.

- 39 [v.3]
- Reconstructing a logic for inductive proofs of properties of functional programs (2010)
- A logical framework consisting of a polymorphic call-by-value functional language and a first-order logic on the values is presented, which is a reconstruction of the logic of the verification system VeriFun. The reconstruction uses contextual semantics to define the logical value of equations. It equates undefinedness and non-termination, which is a standard semantical approach. The main results of this paper are: Meta-theorems about the globality of several classes of theorems in the logic, and proofs of global correctness of transformations and deduction rules. The deduction rules of VeriFun are globally correct if rules depending on termination are appropriately formulated. The reconstruction also gives hints on generalizations of the VeriFun framework: reasoning on nonterminating expressions and functions, mutual recursive functions and abstractions in the data values, and formulas with arbitrary quantifier prefix could be allowed.

- 44
- A contextual semantics for concurrent Haskell with futures (2011)
- In this paper we analyze the semantics of a higher-order functional language with concurrent threads, monadic IO and synchronizing variables as in Concurrent Haskell. To assure declarativeness of concurrent programming we extend the language by implicit, monadic, and concurrent futures. As semantic model we introduce and analyze the process calculus CHF, which represents a typed core language of Concurrent Haskell extended by concurrent futures. Evaluation in CHF is defined by a small-step reduction relation. Using contextual equivalence based on may- and should-convergence as program equivalence, we show that various transformations preserve program equivalence. We establish a context lemma easing those correctness proofs. An important result is that call-by-need and call-by-name evaluation are equivalent in CHF, since they induce the same program equivalence. Finally we show that the monad laws hold in CHF under mild restrictions on Haskell’s seq-operator, which for instance justifies the use of the do-notation.

- 47
- On conservativity of concurrent Haskell (2011)
- The calculus CHF models Concurrent Haskell extended by concurrent, implicit futures. It is a process calculus with concurrent threads, monadic concurrent evaluation, and includes a pure functional lambda-calculus which comprises data constructors, case-expressions, letrec-expressions, and Haskell’s seq. Futures can be implemented in Concurrent Haskell using the primitive unsafeInterleaveIO, which is available in most implementations of Haskell. Our main result is conservativity of CHF, that is, all equivalences of pure functional expressions are also valid in CHF. This implies that compiler optimizations and transformations from pure Haskell remain valid in Concurrent Haskell even if it is extended by futures. We also show that this is no longer valid if Concurrent Haskell is extended by the arbitrary use of unsafeInterleaveIO.

- 53
- Contextual equivalence for the pi-calculus that can stop (2014)
- The pi-calculus is a well-analyzed model for mobile processes and mobile computations. While a lot of other process and lambda calculi that are core languages of higher-order concurrent and/or functional programming languages use a contextual semantics observing the termination behavior of programs in all program contexts, traditional program equivalences in the pi-calculus are bisimulations and barbed testing equivalences, which observe the communication capabilities of processes under reduction and in contexts. There is a distance between these two approaches to program equivalence which makes it hard to compare the pi-calculus with other languages. In this paper we contribute to bridging this gap by investigating a contextual semantics of the synchronous pi-calculus with replication and without sums. To transfer contextual equivalence to the pi-calculus we add a process Stop as constant which indicates success and is used as the base to define and analyze the contextual equivalence which observes may- and should-convergence of processes. We show as a main result that contextual equivalence in the pi-calculus with Stop conservatively extends barbed testing equivalence in the (Stop-free) pi-calculus. This implies that results on contextual equivalence can be directly transferred to the (Stop-free) pi-calculus with barbed testing equivalence. We analyze the contextual ordering, prove some nontrivial process equivalences, and provide proof tools for showing contextual equivalences. Among them are a context lemma, and new notions of sound applicative similarities for may- and should-convergence.

- 47 [v.2]
- On conservativity of concurrent Haskell (2012)
- The calculus CHF models Concurrent Haskell extended by concurrent, implicit futures. It is a process calculus with concurrent threads, monadic concurrent evaluation, and includes a pure functional lambda-calculus which comprises data constructors, case-expressions, letrec-expressions, and Haskell’s seq. Futures can be implemented in Concurrent Haskell using the primitive unsafeInterleaveIO, which is available in most implementations of Haskell. Our main result is conservativity of CHF, that is, all equivalences of pure functional expressions are also valid in CHF. This implies that compiler optimizations and transformations from pure Haskell remain valid in Concurrent Haskell even if it is extended by futures. We also show that this is no longer valid if Concurrent Haskell is extended by the arbitrary use of unsafeInterleaveIO.

- 24 [v.2]
- A call-by-need lambda-calculus with locally bottom-avoiding choice: context lemma and correctness of transformations (2006)
- We present a higher-order call-by-need lambda calculus enriched with constructors, case-expressions, recursive letrec-expressions, a seq-operator for sequential evaluation and a non-deterministic operator amb that is locally bottom-avoiding. We use a small-step operational semantics in form of a single-step rewriting system that defines a (nondeterministic) normal order reduction. This strategy can be made fair by adding resources for bookkeeping. As equational theory we use contextual equivalence, i.e. terms are equal if plugged into any program context their termination behaviour is the same, where we use a combination of may- as well as must-convergence, which is appropriate for non-deterministic computations. We show that we can drop the fairness condition for equational reasoning, since the valid equations w.r.t. normal order reduction are the same as for fair normal order reduction. We evolve different proof tools for proving correctness of program transformations, in particular, a context lemma for may- as well as mustconvergence is proved, which restricts the number of contexts that need to be examined for proving contextual equivalence. In combination with so-called complete sets of commuting and forking diagrams we show that all the deterministic reduction rules and also some additional transformations preserve contextual equivalence.We also prove a standardisation theorem for fair normal order reduction. The structure of the ordering <=c a is also analysed: Ω is not a least element, and <=c already implies contextual equivalence w.r.t. may-convergence.