## Technical report Frank / Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universität, Fachbereich Informatik und Mathematik, Institut für Informatik

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- Lambda-Kalkül (17)
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- 22
- How to prove similarity a precongruence in non-deterministic call-by-need lambda calculi (2006)
- Extending the method of Howe, we establish a large class of untyped higher-order calculi, in particular such with call-by-need evaluation, where similarity, also called applicative simulation, can be used as a proof tool for showing contextual preorder. The paper also demonstrates that Mann’s approach using an intermediate “approximation” calculus scales up well from a basic call-by-need non-deterministic lambdacalculus to more expressive lambda calculi. I.e., it is demonstrated, that after transferring the contextual preorder of a non-deterministic call-byneed lambda calculus to its corresponding approximation calculus, it is possible to apply Howe’s method to show that similarity is a precongruence. The transfer is not treated in this paper. The paper also proposes an optimization of the similarity-test by cutting off redundant computations. Our results also applies to deterministic or non-deterministic call-by-value lambda-calculi, and improves upon previous work insofar as it is proved that only closed values are required as arguments for similaritytesting instead of all closed expressions.

- 26
- Program equivalence for a concurrent lambda calculus with futures (2006)
- Reasoning about the correctness of program transformations requires a notion of program equivalence. We present an observational semantics for the concurrent lambda calculus with futures Lambda(fut), which formalizes the operational semantics of the programming language Alice ML. We show that natural program optimizations, as well as partial evaluation with respect to deterministic rules, are correct for Lambda(fut). This relies on a number of fundamental properties that we establish for our observational semantics.

- 46
- Computing overlappings by unification in the deterministic lambda calculus LR with letrec, case, constructors, seq and variable chains (2011)
- Correctness of program transformations in extended lambda calculi with a contextual semantics is usually based on reasoning about the operational semantics which is a rewrite semantics. A successful approach to proving correctness is the combination of a context lemma with the computation of overlaps between program transformations and the reduction rules.The method is similar to the computation of critical pairs for the completion of term rewriting systems. We describe an effective unification algorithm to determine all overlaps of transformations with reduction rules for the lambda calculus LR which comprises a recursive let-expressions, constructor applications, case expressions and a seq construct for strict evaluation. The unification algorithm employs many-sorted terms, the equational theory of left-commutativity modeling multi-sets, context variables of different kinds and a mechanism for compactly representing binding chains in recursive let-expressions. As a result the algorithm computes a finite set of overlappings for the reduction rules of the calculus LR that serve as a starting point to the automatization of the analysis of program transformations.

- 41
- Towards correctness of program transformations through unification and critical pair computation (2010)

- 41 [v.2]
- Towards correctness of program transformations through unification and critical pair computation (2011)
- Correctness of program transformations in extended lambda calculi with a contextual semantics is usually based on reasoning about the operational semantics which is a rewrite semantics. A successful approach to proving correctness is the combination of a context lemma with the computation of overlaps between program transformations and the reduction rules, and then of so-called complete sets of diagrams. The method is similar to the computation of critical pairs for the completion of term rewriting systems.We explore cases where the computation of these overlaps can be done in a first order way by variants of critical pair computation that use unification algorithms. As a case study we apply the method to a lambda calculus with recursive let-expressions and describe an effective unification algorithm to determine all overlaps of a set of transformations with all reduction rules. The unification algorithm employs many-sorted terms, the equational theory of left-commutativity modelling multi-sets, context variables of different kinds and a mechanism for compactly representing binding chains in recursive let-expressions.

- 53
- Contextual equivalence for the pi-calculus that can stop (2014)
- The pi-calculus is a well-analyzed model for mobile processes and mobile computations. While a lot of other process and lambda calculi that are core languages of higher-order concurrent and/or functional programming languages use a contextual semantics observing the termination behavior of programs in all program contexts, traditional program equivalences in the pi-calculus are bisimulations and barbed testing equivalences, which observe the communication capabilities of processes under reduction and in contexts. There is a distance between these two approaches to program equivalence which makes it hard to compare the pi-calculus with other languages. In this paper we contribute to bridging this gap by investigating a contextual semantics of the synchronous pi-calculus with replication and without sums. To transfer contextual equivalence to the pi-calculus we add a process Stop as constant which indicates success and is used as the base to define and analyze the contextual equivalence which observes may- and should-convergence of processes. We show as a main result that contextual equivalence in the pi-calculus with Stop conservatively extends barbed testing equivalence in the (Stop-free) pi-calculus. This implies that results on contextual equivalence can be directly transferred to the (Stop-free) pi-calculus with barbed testing equivalence. We analyze the contextual ordering, prove some nontrivial process equivalences, and provide proof tools for showing contextual equivalences. Among them are a context lemma, and new notions of sound applicative similarities for may- and should-convergence.

- 47
- On conservativity of concurrent Haskell (2011)
- The calculus CHF models Concurrent Haskell extended by concurrent, implicit futures. It is a process calculus with concurrent threads, monadic concurrent evaluation, and includes a pure functional lambda-calculus which comprises data constructors, case-expressions, letrec-expressions, and Haskell’s seq. Futures can be implemented in Concurrent Haskell using the primitive unsafeInterleaveIO, which is available in most implementations of Haskell. Our main result is conservativity of CHF, that is, all equivalences of pure functional expressions are also valid in CHF. This implies that compiler optimizations and transformations from pure Haskell remain valid in Concurrent Haskell even if it is extended by futures. We also show that this is no longer valid if Concurrent Haskell is extended by the arbitrary use of unsafeInterleaveIO.

- 24 [v.2]
- A call-by-need lambda-calculus with locally bottom-avoiding choice: context lemma and correctness of transformations (2006)
- We present a higher-order call-by-need lambda calculus enriched with constructors, case-expressions, recursive letrec-expressions, a seq-operator for sequential evaluation and a non-deterministic operator amb that is locally bottom-avoiding. We use a small-step operational semantics in form of a single-step rewriting system that defines a (nondeterministic) normal order reduction. This strategy can be made fair by adding resources for bookkeeping. As equational theory we use contextual equivalence, i.e. terms are equal if plugged into any program context their termination behaviour is the same, where we use a combination of may- as well as must-convergence, which is appropriate for non-deterministic computations. We show that we can drop the fairness condition for equational reasoning, since the valid equations w.r.t. normal order reduction are the same as for fair normal order reduction. We evolve different proof tools for proving correctness of program transformations, in particular, a context lemma for may- as well as mustconvergence is proved, which restricts the number of contexts that need to be examined for proving contextual equivalence. In combination with so-called complete sets of commuting and forking diagrams we show that all the deterministic reduction rules and also some additional transformations preserve contextual equivalence.We also prove a standardisation theorem for fair normal order reduction. The structure of the ordering <=c a is also analysed: Ω is not a least element, and <=c already implies contextual equivalence w.r.t. may-convergence.

- 39 [v.3]
- Reconstructing a logic for inductive proofs of properties of functional programs (2010)
- A logical framework consisting of a polymorphic call-by-value functional language and a first-order logic on the values is presented, which is a reconstruction of the logic of the verification system VeriFun. The reconstruction uses contextual semantics to define the logical value of equations. It equates undefinedness and non-termination, which is a standard semantical approach. The main results of this paper are: Meta-theorems about the globality of several classes of theorems in the logic, and proofs of global correctness of transformations and deduction rules. The deduction rules of VeriFun are globally correct if rules depending on termination are appropriately formulated. The reconstruction also gives hints on generalizations of the VeriFun framework: reasoning on nonterminating expressions and functions, mutual recursive functions and abstractions in the data values, and formulas with arbitrary quantifier prefix could be allowed.

- 39
- Reconstruction of a logic for inductive proofs of properties of functional programs (2010)
- The interactive verification system VeriFun is based on a polymorphic call-by-value functional language and on a first-order logic with initial model semantics w.r.t. constructors. This paper provides a reconstruction of the corresponding logic when partial functions are permitted. Typing is polymorphic for the definition of functions but monomorphic for terms in formulas. Equality of terms is defined as contextual equivalence based on observing termination in all contexts. The reconstruction also allows several generalizations of the functional language like mutual recursive functions and abstractions in the data values. The main results are: Correctness of several program transformations for all extensions of a program, which have a potential usage in a deduction system. We also proved that universally quantified equations are conservative, i.e. if a universally quantified equation is valid w.r.t. a program P, then it remains valid if the program is extended by new functions and/or new data types.