## Technical report Frank / Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universität, Fachbereich Informatik und Mathematik, Institut für Informatik

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#### Keywords

- call-by-need lambda calculus (1)
- contextual equivalence (1)
- non-determinism (1)
- precongruence (1)
- similarity (1)

- 31 [v.3]
- On equivalences and standardization in a non-deterministic call-by-need lambda calculus (2009)
- The goal of this report is to prove correctness of a considerable subset of transformations w.r.t. contextual equivalence in an extended lambda-calculus LS with case, constructors, seq, let, and choice, with a simple set of reduction rules; and to argue that an approximation calculus LA is equivalent to LS w.r.t. the contextual preorder, which enables the proof tool of simulation. Unfortunately, a direct proof appears to be impossible. The correctness proof is by defining another calculus L comprising the complex variants of copy, case-reduction and seq-reductions that use variable-binding chains. This complex calculus has well-behaved diagrams and allows a proof of correctness of transformations, and that the simple calculus LS, the calculus L, and the calculus LA all have an equivalent contextual preorder.

- 31 [v.2]
- On equivalences and standardization in a non-deterministic call-by-need lambda calculus (2007)
- The goal of this report is to prove correctness of a considerable subset of transformations w.r.t. contextual equivalence in an extended lambda-calculus LS with case, constructors, seq, let, and choice, with a simple set of reduction rules; and to argue that an approximation calculus LA is equivalent to LS w.r.t. the contextual preorder, which enables the proof tool of simulation. Unfortunately, a direct proof appears to be impossible. The correctness proof is by defining another calculus L comprising the complex variants of copy, case-reduction and seq-reductions that use variable-binding chains. This complex calculus has well-behaved diagrams and allows a proof of correctness of transformations, and that the simple calculus LS, the calculus L, and the calculus LA all have an equivalent contextual preorder.

- 31
- On equivalences and standardization in a non-deterministic call-by-need lambda calculus (2007)
- The goal of this report is to prove correctness of a considerable subset of transformations w.r.t. contextual equivalence in a an extended lambda-calculus with case, constructors, seq, let, and choice, with a simple set of reduction rules. Unfortunately, a direct proof appears to be impossible. The correctness proof is by defining another calculus comprising the complex variants of copy, case-reduction and seq-reductions that use variablebinding chains. This complex calculus has well-behaved diagrams and allows a proof that of correctness of transformations, and also that the simple calculus defines an equivalent contextual order.

- 22
- How to prove similarity a precongruence in non-deterministic call-by-need lambda calculi (2006)
- Extending the method of Howe, we establish a large class of untyped higher-order calculi, in particular such with call-by-need evaluation, where similarity, also called applicative simulation, can be used as a proof tool for showing contextual preorder. The paper also demonstrates that Mann’s approach using an intermediate “approximation” calculus scales up well from a basic call-by-need non-deterministic lambdacalculus to more expressive lambda calculi. I.e., it is demonstrated, that after transferring the contextual preorder of a non-deterministic call-byneed lambda calculus to its corresponding approximation calculus, it is possible to apply Howe’s method to show that similarity is a precongruence. The transfer is not treated in this paper. The paper also proposes an optimization of the similarity-test by cutting off redundant computations. Our results also applies to deterministic or non-deterministic call-by-value lambda-calculi, and improves upon previous work insofar as it is proved that only closed values are required as arguments for similaritytesting instead of all closed expressions.

- 18
- Towards sharing in lazy computation systems (2004)
- Work on proving congruence of bisimulation in functional programming languages often refers to [How89,How96], where Howe gave a highly general account on this topic in terms of so-called lazy computation systems . Particularly in implementations of lazy functional languages, sharing plays an eminent role. In this paper we will show how the original work of Howe can be extended to cope with sharing. Moreover, we will demonstrate the application of our approach to the call-by-need lambda-calculus lambda-ND which provides an erratic non-deterministic operator pick and a non-recursive let. A definition of a bisimulation is given, which has to be based on a further calculus named lambda-~, since the na1ve bisimulation definition is useless. The main result is that this bisimulation is a congruence and contained in the contextual equivalence. This might be a step towards defining useful bisimulation relations and proving them to be congruences in calculi that extend the lambda-ND-calculus.