## Technical report Frank / Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universität, Fachbereich Informatik und Mathematik, Institut für Informatik

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- 18
- Towards sharing in lazy computation systems (2004)
- Work on proving congruence of bisimulation in functional programming languages often refers to [How89,How96], where Howe gave a highly general account on this topic in terms of so-called lazy computation systems . Particularly in implementations of lazy functional languages, sharing plays an eminent role. In this paper we will show how the original work of Howe can be extended to cope with sharing. Moreover, we will demonstrate the application of our approach to the call-by-need lambda-calculus lambda-ND which provides an erratic non-deterministic operator pick and a non-recursive let. A definition of a bisimulation is given, which has to be based on a further calculus named lambda-~, since the na1ve bisimulation definition is useless. The main result is that this bisimulation is a congruence and contained in the contextual equivalence. This might be a step towards defining useful bisimulation relations and proving them to be congruences in calculi that extend the lambda-ND-calculus.

- 22
- How to prove similarity a precongruence in non-deterministic call-by-need lambda calculi (2006)
- Extending the method of Howe, we establish a large class of untyped higher-order calculi, in particular such with call-by-need evaluation, where similarity, also called applicative simulation, can be used as a proof tool for showing contextual preorder. The paper also demonstrates that Mann’s approach using an intermediate “approximation” calculus scales up well from a basic call-by-need non-deterministic lambdacalculus to more expressive lambda calculi. I.e., it is demonstrated, that after transferring the contextual preorder of a non-deterministic call-byneed lambda calculus to its corresponding approximation calculus, it is possible to apply Howe’s method to show that similarity is a precongruence. The transfer is not treated in this paper. The paper also proposes an optimization of the similarity-test by cutting off redundant computations. Our results also applies to deterministic or non-deterministic call-by-value lambda-calculi, and improves upon previous work insofar as it is proved that only closed values are required as arguments for similaritytesting instead of all closed expressions.

- 26
- Program Equivalence for a Concurrent Lambda Calculus with Futures (2006)
- Reasoning about the correctness of program transformations requires a notion of program equivalence. We present an observational semantics for the concurrent lambda calculus with futures Lambda(fut), which formalizes the operational semantics of the programming language Alice ML. We show that natural program optimizations, as well as partial evaluation with respect to deterministic rules, are correct for Lambda(fut). This relies on a number of fundamental properties that we establish for our observational semantics.

- 06
- Termination proofs for a lazy functional language by abstract reduction : (draft) (1996)
- Automatic termination proofs of functional programming languages are an often challenged problem Most work in this area is done on strict languages Orderings for arguments of recursive calls are generated In lazily evaluated languages arguments for functions are not necessarily evaluated to a normal form It is not a trivial task to de ne orderings on expressions that are not in normal form or that do not even have a normal form We propose a method based on an abstract reduction process that reduces up to the point when su cient ordering relations can be found The proposed method is able to nd termination proofs for lazily evaluated programs that involve non terminating subexpressions Analysis is performed on a higher order polymorphic typed language and termi nation of higher order functions can be proved too The calculus can be used to derive information on a wide range on di erent notions of termination.

- 10
- Tinte: developing a prototype for typesetting music in Clean : a case study (1997)
- This paper describes the development of a typesetting program for music in the lazy functional programming language Clean. The system transforms a description of the music to be typeset in a dvi-file just like TEX does with mathematical formulae. The implementation makes heavy use of higher order functions. It has been implemented in just a few weeks and is able to typeset quite impressive examples. The system is easy to maintain and can be extended to typeset arbitrary complicated musical constructs. The paper can be considered as a status report of the implementation as well as a reference manual for the resulting system.

- 41
- Towards correctness of program transformations through unification and critical pair computation (2010)
- Correctness of program transformations in extended lambda-calculi with a contextual semantics is usually based on reasoning about the operational semantics which is a rewrite semantics. A successful approach is the combination of a context lemma with the computation of overlaps between program transformations and the reduction rules, which results in so-called complete sets of diagrams. The method is similar to the computation of critical pairs for the completion of term rewriting systems. We explore cases where the computation of these overlaps can be done in a first order way by variants of critical pair computation that use unification algorithms. As a case study of an application we describe a finitary and decidable unification algorithm for the combination of the equational theory of left-commutativity modelling multi-sets, context variables and many-sorted unification. Sets of equations are restricted to be almost linear, i.e. every variable and context variable occurs at most once, where we allow one exception: variables of a sort without ground terms may occur several times. Every context variable must have an argument-sort in the free part of the signature. We also extend the unification algorithm by the treatment of binding-chains in let- and letrec-environments and by context-classes. This results in a unification algorithm that can be applied to all overlaps of normal-order reductions and transformations in an extended lambda calculus with letrec that we use as a case study.

- 46
- Computing overlappings by unification in the deterministic lambda calculus LR with letrec, case, constructors, seq and variable chains (2011)
- Correctness of program transformations in extended lambda calculi with a contextual semantics is usually based on reasoning about the operational semantics which is a rewrite semantics. A successful approach to proving correctness is the combination of a context lemma with the computation of overlaps between program transformations and the reduction rules.The method is similar to the computation of critical pairs for the completion of term rewriting systems. We describe an effective unification algorithm to determine all overlaps of transformations with reduction rules for the lambda calculus LR which comprises a recursive let-expressions, constructor applications, case expressions and a seq construct for strict evaluation. The unification algorithm employs many-sorted terms, the equational theory of left-commutativity modeling multi-sets, context variables of different kinds and a mechanism for compactly representing binding chains in recursive let-expressions. As a result the algorithm computes a finite set of overlappings for the reduction rules of the calculus LR that serve as a starting point to the automatization of the analysis of program transformations.

- 48
- An abstract machine for concurrent Haskell with futures (2012)
- We show how Sestoft’s abstract machine for lazy evaluation of purely functional programs can be extended to evaluate expressions of the calculus CHF – a process calculus that models Concurrent Haskell extended by imperative and implicit futures. The abstract machine is modularly constructed by first adding monadic IO-actions to the machine and then in a second step we add concurrency. Our main result is that the abstract machine coincides with the original operational semantics of CHF, w.r.t. may- and should-convergence.

- 17
- Realising nondeterministic I/O in the Glasgow Haskell Compiler (2003)
- In this paper we demonstrate how to relate the semantics given by the nondeterministic call-by-need calculus FUNDIO [SS03] to Haskell. After introducing new correct program transformations for FUNDIO, we translate the core language used in the Glasgow Haskell Compiler into the FUNDIO language, where the IO construct of FUNDIO corresponds to direct-call IO-actions in Haskell. We sketch the investigations of [Sab03b] where a lot of program transformations performed by the compiler have been shown to be correct w.r.t. the FUNDIO semantics. This enabled us to achieve a FUNDIO-compatible Haskell-compiler, by turning o not yet investigated transformations and the small set of incompatible transformations. With this compiler, Haskell programs which use the extension unsafePerformIO in arbitrary contexts, can be compiled in a "safe" manner.