Berichte des Sonderforschungsbereichs 268
- 14, 179
Historical implications of a linguistic environment - towards a systemic approach
Ibrahim Maina Waziri
- The aim of our project B6 “Towards a genesis of the ethnolinguistic situation at the southern and western fringes of lake Chad basin” within SFB 268 “West African Savannah” is to analyse the emergence and development of the complex presentday ethnolinguistic patterns in a region which may be historically labelled as southern and western periphery of the Borno empire. For the first time, a model of migratory routes was put forward based on combined research efforts of the disciplines involved in our project. Below we shall attempt to summarise the main points and reflections of our findings. Our specific approach as a whole is based on applying the respective research methods of the individual disciplines represented in our project, namely anthropology, ethnomusicology, history and linguistics and eventually on integrating the results into a systemically coherent picture
- 08, 349
Masakwa dry season cropping in the Chad Basin
- In the inundation area - the basin of the former larger Lake Chad - a special type of sorghum is grown on the clay soils (firgi). This dry-season guinea corn is also called dwarf sorghum or masakwa. In Kanuri, the dominant language in the region, sorghum is called ngawuli. The dry-season types are called ngawuli firgibe (lit. translated: sorghum of the firgi). During the dry season when the natural vegetation becomes dry and yellow, masakwa fields appear in prominent green covering large areas of the clay plains. The most important natural factor for this specialized dry season cropping is the presence of soils with a high clay content. For a better understanding of masakwa and its related issues, a multidisciplinary sub-project (G1) has been established within the SFB 268 (Joint Research Project: History of Culture and Language in the Natural Environment of the West-African Savannah). This project in which all disciplines participate is entitled: "Natural basis for masakwa cultivation and its meaning for the settlement history of the clay plains (firgi) in the Chad basin".
- 08, 049
Adaptation and delimitation: some thoughts about the Kanurization of the Gamergu
Abba Isa Tijani
- The area around the Lake Chad is characterized as an example for a region where ethnic changes abundantly took place and still do. For example some Kanuri districts, or the leaders of those districts, are (unofficially) named after other ethnic names (e.g. Margi, Shuwa) or Kanuri clan names are identical with ethnic names of other groups, eg. Tera, Bade. Both people speak a Chadic language and live in the south and west of the Kanuri respectively. These are indications that the Kanuri formerly absorbed and integrated these peoples. These processes are not only a phenomenon of the past. In the case of the neighbouring Gamergu people an ongoing process of ethnic change towards a Kanuri identity is observed until present. The research projects1 have revealed that the concept of "ethnic units" is far from being static which the term may suggest. This especially applies to the German Stamm, which implies a static concept of ethnicity. However, in Borno the dynamics of ethnic and linguistic change are prevailing. Therefore Ronald Cohen rejected the term "ethnic unit", or even "tribe" for the Kanuri and preferred "nation" instead. Umara Bulakarima argued along the same line but used "ethnic group" for Kanuri subunits, e.g. Manga, Mowar, Suwurti. There is no doubt that the Kanuri played a dominant part in the history of the Lake Chad area during the past centuries. Therefore the "Kanurization" process may not surprise. However, in the following it will be revealed that the processes of contact and resulting adaptations and delimitations are not necessarily unidirectional from Kanuri to other groups. At least in some cases they may go into the opposite direction, e.g. from Gamergu to Kanuri.
- 05, 243
Kanuri-Lehnwörter im geographischen Vokabular des Gamergu
- Lehnwörter dienen als wichtiges linguistisches Indiz für Sprachkontakt, d.h. der Koexistenz mehrerer Sprachen innerhalb einer bestimmten Region, deren Sprecher diese Sprachen alternativ verwenden. Sprachkontakte können im politischen, historischen, geographischen und/oder kulturgeschichtlichen Kontext betrachtet werden. Der folgende Artikel beschäftigt sich mit linguistischen Einflüssen des Kanuri, einer nilosaharanischen Sprache, auf das Gamergu, das zur afroasiatischen Sprachfamilie gehört. Beide Sprachen werden in Nordost-nigeria gesprochen. Anhand von Beispielen aus dem Bereich der Lexik soll ein Zusammenhang von Geschichte und Linguistik deutlich werden. Lehnwörter im Gamergu finden sich in allen Bereichen des Kulturwortschatzes. Die hier aufgeführten Beispiele können dem semantischen Feld "Naturraum" im weiteren Sinne zugeordnet werden, wie z.B. Pflanzen, Bäume, Tiere, Himmelsrichtungen, Mineralien und Körperteile.