‘Retournement’ of the aedeagus in Curculionidae (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea)
Krishna Kumar Verma
- Retournement or turning of the aedeagus about its longitudinal axis through about 180o during development is known in Chrysomeloidea (Coleoptera). This change in the orientation of the organ may be observed during the postembryonic development. This change produces certain morphological effects. By observing these morphological features in the imago the retournement may be inferred. Such morphological features in Curculionidae (Coleoptera) are here recorded. From this it has been inferred not only that retournement of the aedeagus is included in the ontogeny of curculionids, but also that the change of orientation of the organ occurs by the same mechanism as in Chrysomeloidea. These inferences attest the notion of a close phyletic relationship between the superfamilies Curculionoidea and Chrysomeloidea.
Zoogeography of mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in the West Indies
J. Howard Frank
Earl D. McCoy
- Four species of mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) are known from the West Indies: Neocurtilla hexadactyla (Perty), Scapteriscus abbreviatus Scudder, S. didactylus (Latreille), and S. imitatus Nickle and Castner. All are adventive (not native). We document their distributions in West Indian islands/countries by use of records from the literature and examination of specimens. Scapteriscus abbreviatus has been suggested to have arrived in, and been transported about the West Indies in ship ballast (immigration). Based on records of arrival in various parts of the West Indies and the species’ inability to fly, this suggestion seems reasonable. Scapteriscus imitatus pparently was released in Puerto Rico as a result of mistaken identification (introduction – arriving with assistance from humans – although inadvertent), and has not expanded its range in the West Indies. Although the principal mode of dispersal for the other two species also has been suggested to be ship ballast, we present an alternative based on flight which would seem at least equally as plausible. We suggest that S. didactylus could have dispersed by flight from South America through the Lesser Antilles; likewise N. hexadactyla probably from the Yucatan Peninsula to Cuba, and from South America northward through the Lesser Antilles, in at least some localities assisted by wind. Our zoogeographical alternative, if correct, means that the natural range expansions of these latter two species began very long ago and without human assistance – they were not introduced recently to the West Indies.
Xyloryctes Hope, 1837 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Oryctini) in the United States. Qui es et ubi fuisti et quo vadis?
Brett C. Ratcliffe
- Two species of Xyloryctes occur in the United States: X. jamaicensis (Drury) and X. thestalus Bates. Identification and distribution of these species has long been confused but is reviewed and clarified here. Xyloryctes jamaicensis occurs only in the eastern half of the U.S. and not in the southwestern U.S. as previously thought, while X. thestalus occurs in Guatemala and southern Mexico northwards to the southwestern United States. This hypothesis is corroborated by biogeographical and host plant data. Three new synonyms are listed for X. thestalus: X. faunus Casey 1915, X. hebes Casey 1915, and X. thestalus borealis Endrödi. The decline of Fraxinus spp., the food plant of Xyloryctes species, as a result of damage caused by the introduced emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Buprestidae) in the United States might portend a similar decline for Xyloryctes species in North America.
World Checklist of Tribe Calpini (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Calpinae)
Jennifer M. Zaspel
Marc A. Branham
- A preliminary checklist of Calpini is provided, incorporating corrections and changes to publication dates and nomenclature as presented in the checklists of Poole (1989), Fibiger and Lafontaine (2005), and Holloway (2005). Culasta Moore is removed from synonymy with Calyptra Ochsenheimer. Eudocima talboti (Prout) and Graphigona antica Walker are placed in synonymy with E. cajeta (Cramer) and G. regina (Guenée), respectively. Africalpe Krüger, Ferenta Walker, Gonodonta Hübner, Graphigona Walker, Oraesia Guenée, and Tetrisia Walker, are added to the tribe based on shared characters. The genera Cecharismena Möschler, Goniapteryx Perty, Pharga Walker, Phyprosopus Grote, Psammathodoxa Dyar, and Radara Walker are removed and considered incertae sedis. Hemiceratoides and Phyllodes are not considered to be members of Calpini.
World Catalogue of Propalticidae, with a replacement name for Discogenia Kolbe (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea)
Matthew L. Gimmel
- An annotated world catalogue and bibliography of the cucujoid family Propalticidae (Coleoptera) is presented. Each taxon is accompanied by a complete taxonomic history, including a full annotated synonymy with original references cited, and current location and status of primary types. The name Slipinskogenia nom. nov. is proposed to replace Discogenia Kolbe, 1897, junior homonym of Discogenia LeConte, 1866, resulting in 11 new combinations. A key is provided for separation of the two genera included in the family. Complete published and previously unpublished distributional data are given.
Weevils of the genus Cercopeus Schoenherr from South Carolina, USA (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae)
Charles William O'Brien
Janet C. Ciegler
Jennifer C. Girón
- Six new species of the weevil genus Cercopeus Schoenherr are described from South Carolina: C. alexi, C. cornelli, C. femoratus, C. paulus, C. skelleyi, and C. tibialis. Three other species also found in South Carolina are redescribed: C. chrysorrhoeus (Say), C. maspavancus Sleeper, and C. strigicollis Sleeper. Keys to known males and females of all 17 species of Cercopeus are given, along with photographs of habitus, leg features, and antennae, and line illustrations of genitalia. Nearly all specimens of the new species were collected from January-March and these species are winter active.
Vespidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Puerto Rico, West Indies
James M. Carpenter
Julio A. Genaro
- The vespid fauna of Greater Puerto Rico is reviewed (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Three new species are described, Ancistrocerus isla Carpenter, Euodynerus jeitita Carpenter and Genaro, and Omicron aridum Carpenter and Genaro. Polistes crinitus americanus (Fabricius, 1775) and P. crinitus multicolor (Olivier, 1792) are both reduced to synonyms of nominotypical P. crinitus (Felton, 1765), revised status; Zeta abdominale hispaniolae (Bequaert and Salt, 1931) and Zeta abdominale ornatum (de Saussure, 1855) are both reduced to synonyms of nominotypical Zeta abdominale (Drury, 1770), revised status; and Zethus rufinodus monensis Bohart and Stange, 1965, and Zethus rufinodus virginicus Bohart and Stange, 1965, are both reduced to synonyms of nominotypical
Zethus rufinodus (Latreille, 1806), revised status. Parancistrocerus obliquus (Cresson, 1865) is newly recorded
from Puerto Rico. The presence of Pachodynerus guadulpensis (de Saussure, 1853) in Puerto Rico is confirmed. An analysis of the composition of the Puerto Rican vespid fauna is presented.
Variation and pigmentation in the milliped, Xystocheir brachymacris Shelley, 1996, from the northern Sierra Nevada foothills, California, USA (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae: Xystocheirini)
Rowland M. Shelley
Jamie M. Smith
Deren J. Ross
- A newly discovered population of Xystocheir brachymacris Shelley, 1996 (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae: Xystocheirini), in Placer County (Co.), California, exhibits an unusual grayish-black color dorsally with mottled, ovoid patches at paranotal bases; it cons titutes northern generic and specifi c range extensions of ~28.4 km (17.6 mi). The gonopods differ from those in the El Dorado Co. population in having shorter/acuminate prefemoral processes and blade-like, rather than spatulate, processes “B” that angle away from the solenomere instead of overhanging it. Additionally, a strong distomedial prefemoral lobe, absent from the El Dorado population, arises from the stem in Placer Co. males. Authorship of Xystocheirini is properly attributed to Hoffman, 1980.
Updated list of Pinnaspis armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) of Korea
- Pinnaspis chamaecyparidis Takagi, Pinnaspis hikosana Takagi and Pinnaspis uniloba (Kuwana), occurring on Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl., Styrax japonica S. et Z. and Cleyera japonica Thunb. are newly documented in the Korean fauna of armored scales (Diaspididae). The characters of these species are here redescribed with illustrative photographs and information on distribution and hosts along with a dichotomous key to the species of Pinnaspis for correct species identifi cation. In addition, the paper discusses the current status of Pinnaspis buxi (Bouché) and Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley) which are known as native armored scale insects of Korea by analyzing information on the result of the survey.
Tynommatidae, n. stat., a family of western North American millipeds: Hypotheses on origins and affinities; tribal elevations; rediagnoses of Diactis Loomis, 1937, and Florea and Caliactis, both Shelley, 1996; and description of D. hedini, n. sp. (Callipodida: Schizopetalidea)
Rowland M. Shelley
Casey H. Richart
- Tynommatidae, n. stat., elevated from Tynommatinae, is established as a schizopetalidean family encompassing the western North American callipodidans previously assigned to the Mediterranean Schizopetalidae. It is considered a valid taxon despite somewhat anatomically dissimilar subfamilies, and Colactidinae, Texophoninae, Diactidinae, and Aspidiophoninae constitute tribal elevations and additional new statuses. With a subbasal telopodal prefemoral process, Diactis hedini, n. sp., requires rediagnoses of all three diactidine genera, Diactis Loomis, 1937, and Florea and Caliactis, both by Shelley, 1996, and suggests that telopodal branches ‘B’ in congeners and Florea represent distal relocations of the process along the stem. Similarities in the sizes and shapes of the pleurotergal carinae suggest a sister-group relationship with the other, and partly sympatric, New World family, Abacionidae, which is supported by gonopodal similarities between Colactidinae and Abacion Rafi nesque, 1820. The Western Interior Seaway of the Cretaceous Period, Mesozoic Era, ~141–66 million years ago, appears to have fueled divergence by isolating “proto-abacionid stock” in “Appalachia,” the Eastern North American land mass, which has subsequently spread well into previously inundated areas. The allopatric position of Texophoninae, on the Gulf Coast of south Texas around 1,136 km (710 mi) east of the most proximate familial records, is attributed to this waterway, which eradicated faunal linkages with “proto-Tynommatidae” in “Laramidia,” the Western North American land mass. Texophoninae probably survived the Cretaceous on insular refugia; however, it is rarely encountered anymore and seems destined for imminent extinction. Representatives of the east-Asian families, Caspiopetalidae, Paracortinidae, and Sinocallipodidae, also possess demarcated pleurotergal crests and, implausible though it seems, may share ancestry with the North American taxa vis-à-vis the “Asiamerica” and or “Boreotropic” concepts.