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Taxonomy of Phanaeus revisited: Revised keys to and comments on species of the New World dung beetle genus PhanaeusMacLeay, 1819 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Phanaeini)
W. David Edmonds
- The purpose of this paper is to reassess the taxonomy of Phanaeus MacLeay (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) to accommodate new taxa and changes in taxonomic opinion since the publication of Edmonds’ 1994 revision of the genus. The two subgenera and 13 species groups established by Edmonds (1994) remain unchanged. A revised set of keys with accompanying comments and illustrations separates 54 recognized valid species. Seven recently described valid species are incorporated into the revised classification: Phanaeus blackalleri Delgado-Castillo, 1991; P. bordoni Arnaud, 1996; P. changdiazi Kohlmann and Solís, 2001; P. lecourti Arnaud, 2000; P. martinezorum Arnaud, 2000; P. yecoraensis Edmonds, 2004; and P. zapotecus Edmonds, 2006. The new name Phanaeus sororibispinus Edmonds and Zidek replaces Phanaeus alvarengai Arnaud, 1984, a primary junior homonym of P. alvarengai Pereira and d’Andretta, 1955. Three subspecies recognized in 1994 are elevated to species rank, new status: Phanaeus texensis Edmonds, 1994; P. pilatei Harold, 1863; and P. guatemalensis Harold, 1871. Phanaeus obliquans Bates, 1887 is removed from synonymy and given new status as a valid species. Twelve new junior subjective synonyms (bold) are recognized: P. tridens balthasari Arnaud, 2002 (of P. tridens Castelnau, 1840); P. dzidoi Arnaud, 2000 (of P. palaeno Blanchard, 1843); P. genieri Arnaud, 2002 (of P. amethystinus Harold, 1863); P. prasinus jolyi Arnaud, 2001 (of P. prasinus Harold, 1868); P. kirbyi ledezmai Arnaud, 2002 (of P. kirbyi Vigors, 1825); P. achilles lydiae Arnaud, 2000 (of P. achilles Boheman, 1858); P. chalcomelas grossii Arnaud, 2001 (of P. chalcomelas [Perty, 1830]); P pyrois malyi Arnaud, 2002 (of P. pyrois Bates, 1887); P. tridens moroni Arnaud, 2001 (of P. tridens Castenau, 1840); P. lecourti peruanus Arnaud, 2000 (of P. lecourti Arnaud, 2000); P. endymion porioni Arnaud, 2001 (of P. endymion Harold, 1863); P. pseudofurcosus Balthasar, 1939 (of P. tridens Castelnau, 1840); and P. prasinus trinidadensis Arnaud, 2001 (of P. prasinus Harold, 1868). “Phanaeus viridicollis” Olsoufieff, 1924 (sensu Arnaud 2002) is an unavailable name here considered a color variant of P. pyrois Bates, 1887.
The variegated mud-loving beetles (Coleoptera: Heteroceridae) of Mississippi and Alabama, with discussion and keys to the species occurring in the southeastern United States
Jonas G. King
Paul K. Lagos
- We review the variegated mud-loving beetle fauna of the southeastern United States (Coleoptera: Heteroceridae), with an emphasis on Mississippi and Alabama. A key is presented to all species known to occur in the southeastern US, and includes several extra-limital species. Descriptions, illustrations and distribution maps are presented for each species. One new species, Tropicus nigrellus, is described and a lectotype is designated for Heterocerus schwarzi Horn. Our molecular data suggest that many previously recognized generic concepts are unnatural. As a result, the following generic synonymies are proposed: Culmus Pacheco 1964, Damfius Pacheco 1964, Efflagitatus Pacheco 1964, Erus Pacheco 1964, Filiolus Pacheco 1964, Gradus Pacheco 1964, Lanternarius Pacheco 1964, Lapsus Pacheco 1964, Neoheterocerus Pacheco 1964, Olmedous Pacheco 1964 and Peditatus Pacheco 1964 are synonyms of Heterocerus Fabricius; the genera Centariatus Pacheco 1964, Explorator Pacheco 1964, and Microaugyles Pacheco 1964 are synonyms of Augyles Schiödte. New combinations proposed and used in this paper include: Augyles auromicans (Kiesenwetter 1851, Heterocerus), Heterocerus parrotus (Pacheco 1964, Lanternarius), Heterocerus sandersoni (Pacheco 1964, Neoheterocerus) and Heterocerus selanderi (Pacheco 1964, Efflagitatus), Heterocerus texanus (Pacheco 1964, Peditatus). Other new combinations for North American species formed as a result of these generic reconfigurations, but not used in this paper, include: Heterocerus inciertus (Pacheco 1964, Damfius), Heterocerus longilobulus (Pacheco 1964, Neoheterocerus), Heterocerus sinuosus (Pacheco 1964, Lanternarius), Augyles canadensis (Fall 1920, Heterocerus), Augyles compactus (Fall 1937, Heterocerus), Augyles moleculus (Fall 1920, Heterocerus) and Augyles mundulus (Fall 1920, Heterocerus). New combinations for South American species suggested by molecular data, all originally described in the genus Efflagitatus, include: Heterocerus boliviensis (Pacheco 1964), Heterocerus freudei (Pacheco 1973), Heterocerus furmidus (Pacheco 1964), Heterocerus ingeniosus (Pacheco 1964), Heterocerus meridianus (Pacheco 1975), Heterocerus reticulatus (Pacheco 1964), Heterocerus solitarius (Pacheco 1973), Heterocerus splendidus (Pacheco 1964), Heterocerus tortuosus (Pacheco 1973), Heterocerus woodruffi (Pacheco 1975). No new combinations involving synonymy within the genera Culmus, Erus, Filiolus, Gradus, Lapsus, and Olmedous were proposed because all included species were originally described as Heterocerus. Introduction
Sinopsis de la Tribu Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) de Colombia
Héctor Jaime Gasca-Álvarez
- The Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are dynastine scarab beetles with a worldwide distribution consisting of 26 genera and about 230 species, of which 14 genera and 135 species are distributed in the Neotropical region. The species of this tribe occur in habitats ranging from temperate and tropical dry forests to rain forests and cloud forests from sea level to 2600 m in elevation. Some species feed on organic matter or decaying fruits while others bore into the stems of living plants, in which case they occasionally reach pest status. Knowledge of the tribe in the Neotropics is still fragmentary, necessitating further studies that address taxonomy, phylogeny, and geographical distribution patterns of the species. This study surveyed the Oryctini of Colombia. In Colombia there are 7 genera and 32 species, found in 29 departments, 330 municipal districts and approximately 628 specific localities. Heterogomphus curvicornis Prell, Megaceras jason (Fabricius), and Podischnus oberthueri Sternberg are reported for the first time from Colombia. Taxonomic descriptions and distribution maps are provided for all species. An identification key, in Spanish and English, is provided for all oryctine species that occur in Colombia. A checklist of the oryctine beetles of the Colombia is provided.
Revisión sistemática de Mesolecanium Cockerell de la región Neotropical (Hemiptera: Coccidae), con sinonimia y combinaciones nuevas
María Cristina Granara de Willink
- Se redescriben e ilustran 14 especies neotropicales incluidas en Mesolecanium Cockerell (Hemiptera: Coccidae). Ocho especies: Mesolecanium baccharidis (Cockerell), Mesolecanium impar (Cockerell), Mesolecanium mayteni (Hempel), Mesolecanium nocturnum (Cockerell y Parrott), Mesolecanium obscurum Hempel, Mesolecanium obvius Granara de Willink, Mesolecanium perditum (Cockerell), Mesolecanium planum Hempel, pertenecen a este género, las cuales se incluyen en una clave para separar las mismas. Cinco especies son transferidas: Mesolecanium campomanesiae (Hempel) y Mesolecanium pseudosemen (Cockerell), se transfieren a Magnococcus Granara de Willink como Magnococcus campomanesiae (Hempel) comb. nov. Magnococcus pseudosemen (Cockerell) comb. nov. respectivamente; Mesolecanium jaboticabae (Hempel) se transfiere a Parthenolecanium Šulc, como Parthenolecanium jaboticabae (Hempel) comb. nov.; Mesolecanium batatae (Cockerell) a Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti como, Pulvinaria batatae (Cockerell) comb. nov. y Mesolecanium ferum Hempel a Toumeyella Cockerell como Toumeyella ferum (Hempel) comb. nov. Se sinonimisa a Mesolecanium uvicola Hempel con Coccus longulus (Douglas). Se designan los lectotipos de Mesolecanium impar (Cockerell) y Mesolecanium planum Hempel.
Phylogeny and systematics of the giant rhinoceros beetles (Scarabaeidae: Dynastini)
Kelly B Miller
- This report contains the first inclusive phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic structure for the genera presently included within the scarabaeid tribe Dynastini. The study was based upon morphological, biogeographic and molecular data and yielded direct support for the recognition of three subtribes in the Dynastini: Dynastina MacLeay, New Status (Dynastes Kirby, Augosoma Burmeister, Megasoma Kirby, Golofa Hope), Xylotrupina Hope, New Status (Xylotrupes Hope, Allomyrina Arrow, Trypoxylus Minck, Xyloscaptes Prell) and Chalcosomina Rowland and Miller, New Subtribe (Chalcosoma Hope, Haploscapanes Arrow, Beckius Dechambre, Eupatorus Burmeister, Pachyoryctes Arrow). The results provide indirect but significant support for the origin of the tribe Dynastini to be of an age no later than the early Late Cretaceous. Molecular and morphological evidence suggests that Eupatorus as constituted in current taxonomic literature is not monophyletic, and taxonomic alternatives are discussed to address this deficiency. A plausible explanation is also provided for the perplexing use by F. W. Hope of the family-group names Xylotrupidae and Dynastidae.
The genus Aplagiognathus Thomson, 1861 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Prioninae, Macrotomini)
James E. Wappes
- Aplagiognathus Thomson, 1861 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Prioninae, Macrotomini) and its two species, A. spinosus (Newman, 1840) and A. hybostoma Bates, 1879, are redescribed and figured. As the type of A. spinosus is apparently lost, a neotype for the species is designated herein as is a lectotype for A. hybostoma. Keys to the North and Central American genera of Macrotomini (excluding the West Indies) and to Aplagiognathus species are provided. Details on the numerous changes in the nomenclatural history of the genus are also chronicled.
Report of new invasive scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo and Unruh (Monophlebidae) and Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Pseudococcidae), on the islands of San Andres and Providencia, Colombia, with an updated taxonomic key to iceryine scale insects of South America
Andrea Amalia Ramos Portilla
- The multicicatrices fluted scale, Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo and Unruh (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Monophlebidae) is reported from the islands of San Andres and Providencia, Colombia, as a recent invasive species. This scale insect is polyphagous, and attacks numerous plants of economic importance such as avocado, breadfruit, mango, papaya and tropical ornamental plants. A compiled list of 95 host plant species of C. multicicatrices is given. A diagnosis of the adult female of C. multicicatrices and a revised taxonomic key to the species of the tribe Iceryini (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) known from South America is provided. The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), also is reported for the first time from the island of San Andres, where it is found commonly on Hibiscus spp. and Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. The need for the implementation of a classical biological control program in the archipelago in order to control invasive scale insect pests is discussed.
First report of Delphastus quinculus Gordon and Diomus seminulus (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feeding on eggs and first-instar nymphs of Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo and Unruh (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae)
Rodrigo López Bermúdez
- Delphastus quinculus Gordon and Diomus seminulus (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are reported for the first time feeding on eggs and first-instar nymphs of Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo and Unruh (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae). Diagnosis and illustrations are provided for both species. Updated information on their biology, hosts and geographical distribution is also provided.
New country record for Tetramereia convexa (Harold, 1869) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae)
Christian Ampudia Gatty
Rita Vanesa Estrella Grández
Jorge Ari Noriega
- Tetramereia convexa (Harold, 1869) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) is reported for the first time from Loreto in Peru, being the western most record of the species in South America.
First U.S. records of Amorbia concavana (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
James E. Hayden
- Amorbia concavana (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is reported in Florida, USA. Male and female specimens are figured, and new host records are given. The species is compared to other Nearctic species of Amorbia Clemens. Florida specimens are more similar to Cuban than to Central American material with respect to male genitalia.