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#### Institute

- Schwarze Löcher im Labor? : Auf der Suche nach einer experimentellen Bestätigung der Stringtheorie (2006)
- Schwarze Löcher – das sind im Allgemeinen alles verschlingende, gigantisch schwere astronomische Objekte mit bis zu einigen Milliarden Sonnenmassen. Am Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS) und am Institut für Theoretische Physik sind in den vergangenen fünf Jahren eine ganz neue Art von Schwarzen Löchern theoretisch vorhergesagt worden, die genau das Gegenteil der astronomisch gemessenen Giganten darstellen, nämlich winzig kleine Schwarze Löcher, so genannte »mini black holes«. Auftreten könnten sie, wenn im kommenden Jahr der neue Teilchenbeschleuniger am CERN in Genf in Betrieb genommen wird.

- Hydrodynamic flow and jet induced mach shocks at RHIC and LHC (2007)
- We discuss the present collective flow signals for the phase transition to quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS). A study of Mach shocks induced by fast partonic jets propagating through the QGP is given. We predict a significant deformation of Mach shocks in central Au+Au collisions at RHIC and LHC energies as compared to the case of jet propagation in a static medium. Results of a hydrodynamical study of jet energy loss are presented.

- Nuclear equation of state from the nonlinear relativistic mean field theory (1988)
- The properties of symmetric nuclear matter are investigated in the nonlinear relativistic mean field theory of nuclear matter. We consider the constraints imposed by four nuclear ground state properties on the coupling constants and on the equation of state at zero and at finite temperature. We find that the compression constant K(ρ0) as well as the temperature is irrelevant for the stiffness of the equation of state for m*(ρ0)≤0.7. The main point is that the relativistic mean field theory exhibits acausal and unphysical behavior for compressibilities below K(ρ0)=200 MeV. Every set of coupling constants with a negative quartic coupling constant c is unstable against small quantum fluctuations.

- Separation of strangeness from antistrangeness in the phase transition from quark to hadron matter: Possible formation of strange quark matter in heavy-ion collisions (1987)
- We present a mechanism for the separation of strangeness from antistrangeness in the deconfinement transition. For a net strangeness of zero in the total system, the population of s quarks is greatly enriched in the quark-gluon plasma, while the s¯ quarks drift into the hadronic phase. This separation could result in ‘‘strangelet’’ formation, i.e., metastable blobs of strange-quark matter, which could serve as a unique signature for quark-gluon plasma formation in heavy-ion collisions. PACS: 25.70.Np, 12.38.Mh

- K/pi ratios in relativistic nuclear collisions : a signature for the quark-gluon plasma? (1989)
- Collisions of Si(14.5A GeV+Au are investigated in the relativistic-quantum-molecular-dynamics approach. The calculated pseudorapidity distributions for central collisions compare well with recent experimental data, indicating a large degree of nuclear stopping and thermalization. Nevertheless, nonequilibrium effects play an important role in such complex multihadron reactions: They lead to a strong enhancement of the total kaon production cross sections, in good agreement with the experimental data, without requiring the formation of a deconfined quark-gluon plasma.

- Possibility of detecting density isomers in high-density nuclear mach shock waves (1976)
- Up to now no experimentally feasible method for detecting abnormal nuclear states has been known. We propose to observe them in high-energy heavy-ion collisions through the disappearance of, or irregularities in, high-density nuclear Mach shock phenomena.

- Comment on "Exactly central heavy-ion collisions by nuclear hydrodynamics" (1981)
- Problems arising in viscous nuclear fluid dynamical models of high-energy heavy-ion collisions are discussed. The importance of an accurate treatment of the transport properties of the hot and dense nuclear matter is pointed out.

- Importance of nuclear viscosity and thermal conductivity and the analysis of the bounce-off effect in high energy heavy ion collisions (1981)
- We present an analysis of high energy heavy ion collisions at intermediate impact parameters, using a two-dimensional fluid-dynamical model including shear and bulk viscosity, heat conduction, a realistic treatment of the nuclear binding, and an analysis of the final thermal emission of free nucleons. We find large collective momentum transfer to projectile and target residues (the highly inelastic bounce-off effect) and explosion of the hot compressed shock zones formed during the impact. As the calculated azimuthal dependence of energy spectra and angular distributions of emitted nucleons depends strongly on the coefficients of viscosity and thermal conductivity, future exclusive measurements may allow for an experimental determination of these transport coefficients. The importance of 4π measurements with full azimuthal information is pointed out.

- Collective sideward flow of nuclear matter in violent high-energy heavy-ion collisions (1980)
- Angular and energy distributions of fragments emitted from fast nucleus-nucleus collisions (Ne--> U at 250, 400, and 800 MeV/N) are calculated with use of nuclear fluid dynamics. A characteristic dependence of the energy spectra and angular distributions on the impact parameter is predicted. The preferential sideward emission of reaction fragments observed in the calculation for nearly central collisions seems to be supported by recent experimental data.

- Macroscopic nucleon-nucleon correlations caused by the bounce-off process in energetic collisions of heavy nuclei (1981)
- Two-particle correlation data are presented for the reaction Ar (800 MeV/ nucleon) + Pb. The experimental results are analyzed in the nuclear fluid dynamical and in a linear cascade model. We demonstrate that the collective hydrodynamical correlations dominate the measured two-particle correlation function for the heavy system studied. We discuss the transition from the early stages of the reaction which are governed by few nucleon correlations, to the later stages with their macroscopic flow which can only be reached using heavy colliding systems. The sensitivity of the correlation data on the underlying compressional dissipative processes is analyzed.