Deutsche Auswanderung und Colonieen
Treatment of active lupus nephritis with the novel immunosuppressant 15-deoxyspergualin: an open-label dose escalation study
Wilhelm H. Schmitt
Ingeborg A. Hauser
Peter A. Heinzel
- Introduction: As the immunosuppressive potency of 15-deoxyspergualin (DSG) has been shown in the therapy of renal transplant rejection and Wegener's granulomatosis, the intention of this study was to evaluate the safety of DSG in the therapy of lupus nephritis (LN). Methods: Patients with histologically proven active LN after prior treatment with at least one immunosuppressant were treated with 0.5 mg/kg normal body weight/day DSG, injected subcutaneously for 14 days, followed by a break of one week. These cycles were repeated to a maximum of 9 times. Doses of oral corticosteroids were gradually reduced to 7.5 mg/day or lower by cycle 4. Response was measured according to a predefined decision pattern. The dose of DSG was adjusted depending on the efficacy and side effects. Results: 21 patients were included in this phase-I/II study. After the first DSG injection, one patient was excluded from the study due to renal failure. 5 patients dropped out due to adverse events or serious adverse events including fever, leukopenia, oral candidiasis, herpes zoster or pneumonia. 11/20 patients achieved partial (4) or complete responses (7), 8 were judged as treatment failures and one patient was not assessable. 12 patients completed all 9 cycles; in those patients, proteinuria decreased from 5.88g/day to 3.37g/day (P = 0.028), Selena-SLEDAI decreased from 17.6 to 11.7. In 13/20 patients, proteinuria decreased by at least 50%; in 7 patients to less than 1g/day. Conclusions: Although the number of patients was small, we could demonstrate that DSG provides a tolerably safe treatment for LN. The improvement in proteinuria encourages larger controlled trials.
On submicroscopic structure of the nautilus shell
Studies on the Xeniidae of the Red Sea : their ecology, physiology, taxonomy and phylogeny / by H. A. F. Gohar (Ḥāmid ʿAbd-al-Fattāḥ Ǧauhar). [Mit arab. Zsfassung]
Ḥāmid ʿAbd-al-Fattāḥ Ǧauhar
Les gloses françaises dans deux commentaires du Taršiš de Moïse Ibn Ezra' : (Ms. Munich no 211, ms. Hambourg no 32 2 )
Linguistics in cognitive science: the state of the art
- The special issue of The Linguistic Review on "The Role of Linguistics in Cognitive Science" presents a variety of viewpoints that complement or contrast with the perspective offered in Foundations of Language (Jackendoff 2002a). The present article is a response to the special issue. It discusses what it would mean to integrate linguistics into cognitive science, then shows how the parallel architecture proposed in Foundations seeks to accomplish this goal by altering certain fundamental assumptions of generative grammar. It defends this approach against criticisms both from mainstream generative grammar and from a variety of broader attacks on the generative enterprise, and it reflects on the nature of Universal Grammar. It then shows how the parallel architecture applies directly to processing and defends this construal against various critiques. Finally, it contrasts views in the special issue with that of Foundations with respect to what is unique about language among cognitive capacities, and it conjectures about the course of the evolution of the language faculty.
Neue Tipulidenfunde aus den Braunkohlenschiefern von Rott am Siebengebirge
Die praehistorischen Hunde in ihrer Beziehung zu den gegenwärtig lebenden Rassen
A tale of two helmets : the Negau A and B inscriptions
- The goals of this exercise are essentially threefold: (1) to rescrutinize, archaeologically, epigraphically and linguistically, the pre-Roman inscriptions of the justly famous Negau A and B helmets, (2) to identify "eastward graphemic drift" in preRoman northern Italy and (3) to reconsider and perhaps identify the origin of the Germanic runes in light of (1) and (2). While moving toward these goals, we cite but a sampling of the burgeoning literature, some of which may not be generally known or easily accessible, in these rapidly expanding venues; see Ellis (1998) for a recent overview in English.