Yeli Dnye and the Theory of Basic Color Terms
Stephen C. Levinson
- The theory of basic color terms was a crucial factor in the demise of linguistic relativity. The theory is now once again under scrutiny and fundamental revision. This article details a case study that undermines one of the central claims of the classical theory, namely that languages universally treat color as a unitary domain, to be exhaustively named. Taken together with other cases, the study suggests that a number of languages have only an incipient color terminology, raising doubts about the linguistic universality of such terminology.
Quality assessment of expert answers to lay questions about cystic fibrosis from various language zones in Europe: the ECORN-CF project
Kris De Boeck
Thomas Otto Friedrich Wagner
Helge Uwe Hebestreit
- Background: The European Centres of Reference Network for Cystic Fibrosis (ECORN-CF) established an Internet forum which provides the opportunity for CF patients and other interested people to ask experts questions about CF in their mother language. The objectives of this study were to: 1. develop a detailed quality assessment tool to analyze quality of expert answers, 2. evaluate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this tool, and 3. explore changes in the quality of expert answers over the time frame of the project.
Methods: The quality assessment tool was developed by an expert panel. Five experts within the ECORN-CF project used the quality assessment tool to analyze the quality of 108 expert answers published on ECORN-CF from six language zones. 25 expert answers were scored at two time points, one year apart. Quality of answers was also assessed at an early and later period of the project. Individual rater scores and group mean scores were analyzed for each expert answer.
Results: A scoring system and training manual were developed analyzing two quality categories of answers: content and formal quality. For content quality, the grades based on group mean scores for all raters showed substantial agreement between two time points, however this was not the case for the grades based on individual rater scores. For formal quality the grades based on group mean scores showed only slight agreement between two time points and there was also poor agreement between time points for the individual grades. The inter-rater agreement for content quality was fair (mean kappa value 0.232+/-0.036, p<0.001) while only slight agreement was observed for the grades of the formal quality (mean kappa value 0.105+/-0.024, p<0.001). The quality of expert answers was rated high (four language zones) or satisfactory (two language zones) and did not change over time.
Conclusions: The quality assessment tool described in this study was feasible and reliable when content quality was assessed by a group of raters. Within ECORN-CF, the tool will help ensure that CF patients all over Europe have equal possibility of access to high quality expert advice on their illness.
Descending aortic calcification increases renal dysfunction and in-hospital mortality in cardiac surgery patients with intraaortic balloon pump counterpulsation placed perioperatively: a case control study
James D. Rawn
Prem S. Shekar
Tobias Michael Bingold
Holger K. Eltzschig
Stanton K Shernan
- Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery increases length of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality. A significant number of patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures require perioperative intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) support. Use of an IABP has been linked to an increased incidence of perioperative renal dysfunction and death. This might be due to dislodgement of atherosclerotic material in the descending thoracic aorta (DTA). Therefore, we retrospectively studied the correlation between DTA atheroma, AKI and in-hospital mortality.
Methods: A total of 454 patients were retrospectively matched to one of four groups: -IABP/-DTA atheroma, +IABP/-DTA atheroma, -IABP/+DTA atheroma, +IABP/+DTA atheroma. Patients were then matched according to presence/absence of DTA atheroma, presence/absence of IABP, performed surgical procedure, age, gender and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). DTA atheroma was assessed through standard transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) imaging studies of the descending thoracic aorta.
Results: Basic patient characteristics, except for age and gender, did not differ between groups. Perioperative AKI in patients with -DTA atheroma/+IABP was 5.1% versus 1.7% in patients with -DTA atheroma/-IABP. In patients with +DTA atheroma/+IABP the incidence of AKI was 12.6% versus 5.1% in patients with +DTA atheroma/-IABP. In-hospital mortality in patients with +DTA atheroma/-IABP was 3.4% versus 8.4% with +DTA atheroma/+IABP. In patients with +DTA atheroma/+IABP in hospital mortality was 20.2% versus 6.4% with +DTA atheroma/-IABP. Multivariate logistic regression identified DTA atheroma > 1 mm (P = *0.002, odds ratio (OR) = 4.13, confidence interval (CI) = 1.66 to 10.30), as well as IABP support (P = *0.015, OR = 3.04, CI = 1.24 to 7.45) as independent predictors of perioperative AKI and increased in-hospital mortality. DTA atheroma in conjunction with IABP significantly increased the risk of developing acute kidney injury (P = 0.0016) and in-hospital mortality (P = 0.0001) when compared to control subjects without IABP and without DTA atheroma.
Conclusions: Perioperative IABP and DTA atheroma are independent predictors of perioperative AKI and in-hospital mortality. Whether adding an IABP in patients with severe DTA calcification increases their risk of developing AKI and mortality postoperatively cannot be clearly answered in this study. Nevertheless, when IABP and DTA are combined, patients are more likely to develop AKI and to die postoperatively in comparison to patients without IABP and DTA atheroma.
Multiattachment and the unaccusative hypothesis : the perfect auxiliary in Italian
Notes of the traditions and manners and customs of the Mori-oris
William Thomas Locke Travers
Lepidoptera phylogeny and systematics : the state of inventorying moth and butterfly diversity
Niels P. Kristensen
Malcolm J. Scoble
- The currently recognized robust support for the monophyly of the Lepidoptera (and the superorder Amphiesmenoptera comprising Lepidoptera + Trichoptera) is outlined, and the phylogeny of the principal lineages within the order is reviewed succinctly. The state of the taxonomic inventory of Lepidoptera is discussed separately for ‘micro-moths’, ‘macro-moths’ and butterflies, three assemblages on which work has followed historically somewhat different paths. While currently there are about 160,000 described species of Lepidoptera, the total number of extant species is estimated to be around half a million. On average, just over one thousand new species of Lepidoptera have been described annually in recent years. Allowing for the new synonyms simultaneously established, the net increase in species numbers still exceeds 800/year. Most of the additions are foreseeable in the micro-moth grade, but even for butterflies ca 100 species are added annually. Examples of particularly interesting new high-rank taxa that have been described (or whose significance has become realized) since the middle of the 20th century include the non-glossatan lineages represented by Agathiphaga and Heterobathmia and the heteroneuran families Andesianidae, Palaephatidae, Hedylidae and Micronoctuidae. Some thoughts on how present and future systematic lepidopterology might be prioritised are presented.
Phylogenetic implications of the mesosomal skeleton in Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera, Apocrita) - tree searches in a jungle of homoplasy
- Results from a comparative anatomical study of the mesosomal skeleton of Chalcidoidea are presented. External and internal features are described and illustrated for 39 chalcidoid taxa, representing 16 families and 29 subfamilies. This is the most comprehensive morphological study ever conducted for the superfamily. The mesosoma was dissected, macerated and investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The mesothorax and metathorax contributed most of the phylogenetically relevant information. The metafurca is highly variable within Chalcidoidea but seems to be relatively constant at the subfamily level. One hundred and fifty-four morphological characters were scored and analysed cladistically. Outgroup species were chosen from six apocritan superfamilies: Stephanoidea, Ceraphronoidea, Cynipoidea, Platygastroidea, Proctotrupoidea and Mymarommatoidea. Some previously suggested chalcidoid relationships were retrieved: (1) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae + Miscogasterinae + Panstenoninae; (2) Perilampidae + Eucharitidae; (3) Chalcididae + Leucospidae + Eurytomidae; (4) Eulophidae: Eulophinae + Tetrastichinae + Entedoninae; and (5) Eupelmidae + Encyrtidae, Mymarommatoidea renders Chalcidoidea paraphyletic in our analyses; however, the taxon sample is too restricted to provide a robust hypothesis. Three previously unreported putative autapomorphies of Chalcidoidea were revealed: (1) presence of an exposed, triangular or diamond-shaped prosternum; (2) presence of a percurrent mesopleural sulcus anteriorly terminating in the acropleuron; and (3) presence of paired metapectal plates lateral to the metafurca. Additional keywords: character evolution, cladistic analysis, comparative anatomy, phylogenetic systematics.
The vision of the east and the heritage of the west : ideological pressures in the Yishuv period and their offshoots in Israeli art music during the recent two decades
The ion- and electron-exchange properties of activated carbon in relation to its behaviour as a catalyst and adsorbent
V. A. Garten
D. E. Weiss
Phonological recoding and self-teaching: sine qua non of reading acquisition
David L. Share
- The self-teaching hypothesis proposes that phonological recoding functions as a self-teaching mechanism enabling the learner to independently acquire an autonomous orthographic lexicon. Successful decoding encounters with novel letter strings provide opportunities to learn word-specific print-to-meaning connections. Although it may not playa central role in skilled word recognition, phonological recoding, by virtue of its self-teaching function, is regarded as critical to successful reading acquisition. This paper elaborates the self-teaching hypothesis proposed by Jorm and Share (1983), and reviews relevant evidence. Key features of phonological recoding include an item-based rather than stage-based role in development, the progressive "lexicalization" of the process of recoding, and the importance of phonological awareness and contextual information in resolving decoding ambiguity. Although phonological skills have been shown to be primary in reading acquisition, orthographic processing appears to be an important but secondary source of individual differences. This implies an asymmetrical pattern of dissociations in both developmental and acquired reading disorders. Strong relationships between word recognition, basic phonological processing abilities and phonemic awareness are also consistent with the self-teaching notion. Finally, it is noted that current models of word recognition (both PDP and dual-route) fail to address the quintessential problem of reading acquisition - independent generation of target pronunciations for novel orthographic strings.