Part of a Book
George P. Redei
- Classical genetic analyses require the presence of at least two different alleles per locus. Until the mid 1920's for the different alleles the investigators had to rely on spontaneous mutations. Since then mutagenic agents (mutagens) became available and these discoveries greatly enhanced the power of genetic analyses. Mutation is defined here as a heritable chemical alteration within the gene or the mutation process bringing about the change. Mutant is the individual (cell) containing the mutation. Point mutations are assumed to be free of loss, gain or rearrangement within the nucleotide sequence. Fonvard mutations are changes from the wild type allele (the allele predominant in wild populations) to a new allele, and the reverse process is backmutation. The frequency o/mutation per locus per generation (mutation rate) must be distinguished from mutant frequency, indicating simply the number of mutants in a population. Mutation in the broad sense involves also hereditary changes in chromosome number (polyploidy and aneuploidy) and chromosome structure, visible through the light microscope. The latter types are frequently called chromosomal aberrations. Arabidopsis, without further qualifications, in this context, will refer to Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. in its diploid form (2n = 10). This species has three genomes, the nuclear, plastidic and the mitochondrial. Its nuclear genome (n = 5) is the smallest among higher plants (Leutweiler et al., 1984), containing about 0.7 - 1 x 108 bp, and redundancy is very low (Meyerowitz and Pruitt, 1985). The plastid genome is about the same size as that of the mcYority of higher plants, ca. 150 kb. The size of the mitochondrial genome is ca. 400 kb. Arabidopsis is an excellent tool for genetics and its critical features and known mutants have been reviewed (R&Iei , 1970, 1975a,b; Kranz, 1978; Meyerowitz and Pruitt, 1984; Meyerowitz, 1987, 1989; Estelle and Somerville, 1986; Bowman et al., 1988).
Culture and "basic" psychological principles
Hazel Rose Markus
Rachel H. Heiman
Temporal regularity effects on pre-attentive and attentive processing of deviance
Sonja A. Kotz
- Temporal regularity allows predicting the temporal locus of future information thereby potentially facilitating cognitive processing. We applied event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate how temporal regularity impacts pre-attentive and attentive processing of deviance in the auditory modality. Participants listened to sequences of sinusoidal tones differing exclusively in pitch. The inter-stimulus interval (ISI) in these sequences was manipulated to convey either isochronous or random temporal structure. In the pre-attentive session, deviance processing was unaffected by the regularity manipulation as evidenced in three event-related-potentials (ERPs): mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and reorienting negativity (RON). In the attentive session, the P3b was smaller for deviant tones embedded in irregular temporal structure, while the N2b component remained unaffected. These findings confirm that temporal regularity can reinforce cognitive mechanisms associated with the attentive processing of deviance. Furthermore, they provide evidence for the dynamic allocation of attention in time and dissociable pre-attentive and attention-dependent temporal processing mechanisms.
Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2
- 1. Introduction: The autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA) are a clinically, pathologically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders caused by degeneration of cerebellum and its afferent and efferent connections. The degenerative process may additionally involves the ponto- medullar systems, pyramidal tracts, basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, peripheral nerves (ADCA I) and the retina (ADCA II), or can be limited to the cerebellum (ADCA III) (Harding et al., 1993). The most common of these dominantly inherited autosomal ataxias, ADCA I, includes many Spinocerebellar Ataxias (SCA) subtypes, some of which are caused by pathological CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the coding region on the mutated gene. Such is the case for SCA1, SCA2, SCA3/MJD, SCA6, SCA7, SCA17 and Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) (Matilla et al., 2006). Among the almost 30 SCAs, the variant SCA2 is the second most prevalent subtype worldwide, only surpassed by SCA3 (Schöls et al., 2004; Matilla et al., 2006; Auburger, 2011)...
Adaptation of Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy in a 29 Year Old Female Patient with Chronic Major Depression and Antecedent Dysthymic Disorder Who Switched Under Combined SSRI/CBASP Outpatient Treatment into Bipolarity: A Case Report
Global Bukowina: Legal Pluralism in the World-Society
Use of radiobiological modeling in treatment plan evaluation and optimization of prostate cancer radiotherapy
Bengt K. Lind
- There are many tools available that are used to evaluate a radiotherapy treatment plan, such as isodose distribution charts, dose volume histograms (DVH), maximum, minimum and mean doses of the dose distributions as well as DVH point dose constraints. All the already mentioned evaluation tools are dosimetric only without taking into account the radiobiological characteristics of tumors or OARs. It has been demonstrated that although competing treatment plans might have similar mean, maximum or minimum doses they may have significantly different clinical outcomes (Mavroidis et al. 2001). For performing a more complete treatment plan evaluation and comparison the complication-free tumor control probability (P+) and the biologically effective uniform dose (D ) have been proposed (Källman et al. 1992a, Mavroidis et al. 2000). The D concept denotes that any two dose distributions within a target or OAR are equivalent if they produce the same probability for tumor control or normal tissue complication, respectively (Mavroidis et al. 2001)...
Quantum Theory as Universal Theory of Structures – Essentially from Cosmos to Consciousness
- Quantum theory is the most successful physical theory ever. About one third of the gross national product in the developed countries results from its applications. These applications range from nuclear power to most of the high-tech tools for computing, laser, solar cells and so on. No limit for its range of validity has been found up to now...
Refinement of protein tertiary structure by using spin-spin coupling constants from nuclear magnetic resonance measurements
Jürgen M. Schmidt
- Modelling protein structure seems a challenging enterprise because the number of structure parameters required ordinarily exceeds the amount of independent data points available from experimental observations. Expressing the predominant conformation of a protein in terms of a geometry model, a polypeptide chain consisting of N atoms would command 3N – 6 Cartesian coordinates be fixed. Even for small proteins, this becomes a daunting number. Fortunately, so-called holonomic constraints limit the number of variables, leaving substantially fewer, truly relevant parameters for folding the polypeptide chain into its native tertiary structure. For example, adjusting bond lengths and the many angles between the covalent bonds connecting the atoms is of little concern and appropriate standard values can be inserted from tableworks (Pople & Gordon, 1967; Engh & Huber, 1991, 2006). Table 1 exemplifies for the 147-residue protein Desulfovibrio vulgaris flavodoxin how the number of truly independent internal rotational degrees of freedom amounts to less than one-tenth of the Cartesian coordinate set size...
Application of the liposuction techniques and principles in specific body areas and pathologies
Jorge A. D’Angelo
- The buttocks have been a symbol of attraction, sexuality and eroticism since ancient times and therefore, they have an important role in defining the posterior body contour. More and more people are talking about and understand the meaning and the role that buttocks play in modeling and physical beauty. The three dimensional gluteoplasty (3-DGP) is an innovative technique that allows us to change volume, shape and firmness, not only in the buttocks but also in the adjacent regions such as the thighs and trochanters, becoming an ideal tool to answer the frequent reasons of consultation of our patients about this particular area of the body: ...