Nuclear reactions for astrophysics with storage rings

  • This thesis presents experimental studies of proton capture and fragmentation reactions with heavy-ion storage rings. In one experiment, the 96Ru(p, γ)97Rh cross sections near the Gamow window have been measured at the ESR of GSI. In the other experiment, the measurement of the fragmentation yields has been carried out at the CSRe of IMP. It is essential to determine the cross sections of (γ, p) or (p, γ) reactions for p-process network calculations. However, only very few of the required cross sections have been measured and thus most of them rely solely on Hauser-Feshbach model predictions. The predictions of the model have always very large uncertainties because of the not well-known input parameters. These parameters can be constrained by experiments. Compared to the traditional activation technique, a novel method using a storage ring has been developed to measure the cross sections of (p, γ) reactions in inverse kinematics. This proton capture experiment has been performed at the ESR, where the circulating 96Ru44+ ions interacted with a hydrogen gas target at 9, 10 and 11 MeV/u. The nuclear reaction products of (p, p), (p, α), (p, n) and (p, γ) reactions were registered by position sensitive detectors. A Geant4 simulation code has been developed to distinguish the (p, γ) reaction products unambiguously from the background reactions. In this work, a relative normalization method has been utilized to accurately determine the cross sections of the (p, γ) reaction. The 96Ru(p, γ)97Rh cross section in the Gamow window of the p process is sensitive to two parameters, i.e., the γ-ray strength function and the optical model potential, while it is mainly sensitive to the γ-ray strength function in the energy region of our experiment. Therefore, our experimental (p, γ) cross sections near 10 MeV/u have been used to directly constrain the γ-ray strength function used in the model. Furthermore, the proton potential has also been constrained by combining our results with additional experimental data for this reaction in the lower energy region. The constrained model has been used to calculate the reaction rate over a wide temperature range, which is an extremely important input for astrophysical calculations. The yields of fragments produced by 78Kr fragmentation reactions have been measured at the CSRe for the Tz = −1/2 and Tz = 1/2 nuclei along or close to the paths of αp- and rp-processes. The measured yields present a significant odd-even staggering effect for Tz = −1/2 nuclides but they are small for Tz = 1/2 nuclides. The magnitude of this effect for four consecutive yields has been quantified using a third-order difference formula. It is found that the largest odd-even staggering is reached near the closed shells Z = 20 and Z = 28. Our experimental results could also compared with the data from other experiments with different projectile-target combinations. All these experimental data strongly support the closed shells Z = 20 and Z = 28 for the Tz = −1/2 nuclei.

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Author:Bo MeiGND
Referee:René ReifarthORCiDGND, Yuri A. LitvinovORCiDGND
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Year of Completion:2014
Year of first Publication:2014
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Granting Institution:Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität
Release Date:2015/05/29
Page Number:146
Last Page:134
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Institutes:Physik / Physik
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 53 Physik / 530 Physik
Licence (German):License LogoArchivex. zur Lesesaalplatznutzung § 52b UrhG