Measuring social participation in children with chronic health conditions : validation and reference values of the child and adolescent scale of participation (CASP) in the German context

  • Background: While ICF-CY-based models of care are promising avenues for improving participation of children with chronic health conditions, feasible and valid instruments to assess participation as an outcome in routine are still needed. We aimed to validate a German parent-report version of the Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation (CASP) in children with chronic health conditions of different severity. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected in 327 children (mean age 7.8 years, 55% boys) from two paediatric centres (n = 112) and one population-based sample (n = 215). Cronbach’s alpha, factor analyses, face validity assessments, correlation analyses, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves, and parent-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL: KINDL) were used to examine internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and capacity to differentiate between disease severity groups. Disease severity was operationalized according to ICD-diagnosis groups and/or parent-reports on health problems, medical and educational support, and medication. A newly developed item "overall perceived participation" was added to the CASP and evaluated. Results: We found good to excellent content validity, excellent internal consistency, and good-to-excellent test-retest reliability of the instrument. While children with mild disease had a significantly greater extent of participation (higher CASP scores) than children with severe disease, they did not differ from healthy children. Children with mild compared to severe disease much more differed in participation as measured by the CASP compared to the KINDL (area under the ROC curve: 0.92 vs. 0.75). In addition, the item "overall perceived participation" was highly correlated (r = 0.86) with the CASP total score, indicating the potential value of this specific single item. Finally, we provided preliminary reference values for the CASP obtained in a population-based sample of children without chronic health conditions. Conclusions: The German version of the CASP and the new item are efficient, valid and reliable measures of social participation in childhood. The CASP-measured participation focuses more on attendance than on involvement into social circumstances of everyday life. To detect children with a high burden of disease on everyday life, the CASP may be more accurate than HRQoL instruments such as the KINDL. As outcome measurement, the CASP may facilitate the implementation of patient-centred paediatric health care.

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Author:Freia de Bock, Catherin Bosle, Christine Farwick, Johannes Oepen, Heike Philippi, Michael Siegfried Urschitz
Pubmed Id:
Parent Title (English):BMC pediatrics
Publisher:BioMed Central
Place of publication:London
Document Type:Article
Year of Completion:2019
Date of first Publication:2019/04/24
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2019/04/29
Tag:Children; Chronic health condition; Psychometric evaluation; Quality of life; Social participation; Validation
Issue:1, Art. 125
Page Number:13
First Page:1
Last Page:13
Open Access: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Institutes:Medizin / Medizin
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 4.0