Multinucleated giant cells within the in vivo implantation bed of a collagen-based biomaterial determine its degradation pattern

  • Objectives: The aim of the present study was to characterize the cellular reaction to a xenogeneic resorbable collagen membrane of porcine origin using a subcutaneous implantation model in Wistar rats over 30 days. Materials and methods: Ex vivo, liquid platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), a leukocyte and platelet-rich cell suspension, was used to evaluate the blood cell membrane interaction. The material was implanted subcutaneously in rats. Sham-operated rats without biomaterial displayed physiological wound healing (control group). Histological, immunohistological, and histomorphometric analyses were focused on the inflammatory pattern, vascularization rate, and degradation pattern. Results: The membrane induced a large number of mononuclear cells over the observation period, including lymphocytes, macrophages, and fibroblasts. After 15 days, multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) were observed on the biomaterial surface. Their number increased significantly, and they proceeded to the center of the biomaterial on day 30. These cells highly expressed CD-68, calcitonin receptor, and MMP-9, but not TRAP or integrin-ß3. Thus, the membrane lost its integrity and underwent disintegration as a consequence of the induction of MNGCs. The significant increase in MNGC number correlated with a high rate of vascularization, which was significantly higher than the control group. Physiological wound healing in the control group did not induce any MNGCs at any time point. Ex vivo blood cells from liquid-PRF did not penetrate the membrane. Conclusion: The present study suggests a potential role for MNGCs in biomaterial degradation and questions whether it is beneficial to accept them in clinically approved biomaterials or focus on biomaterials that induce only mononuclear cells. Thus, further studies are necessary to identify the function of biomaterial-induced MNGCs. Clinical relevance: Understanding the cellular reaction to biomaterials is essential to assess their suitability for specific clinical indications and outline the potential benefit of specific group of biomaterials in the respective clinical indications.

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Author:Anna Maria TannebergerGND, Sarah al- MaawiGND, Carlos Herrera-VizcaínoORCiDGND, Anna Orlowska, Alica KubeschORCiDGND, Robert Alexander SaderORCiDGND, Charles James KirkpatrickORCiD, Shahram Michael GhanaatiORCiDGND
Parent Title (English):Clinical oral investigations
Place of publication:Berlin ; Heidelberg
Document Type:Article
Date of Publication (online):2020/06/08
Date of first Publication:2020/06/08
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2023/04/13
Tag:Disintegration; Guided bone regeneration (GBR); Guided tissue regeneration (GTR); Inflammatory pattern; Integration
Page Number:15
First Page:859
Last Page:873
Open Access funding provided by Projekt DEAL. This research was funded solely by the FORM Lab’s own research funds.
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 4.0