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Optimalnosna teorija ili kako se jezik (s)našao u igri između dvije vatre

Optimality Theory or Language in a Dodgeball Game

  • U ovome će se radu dati uvod u optimalnosnu teoriju (engl. Optimality Theory, Prince i Smolensky 1991/1993, 2004), jednu od najznačajnijih suvremenih teorija jezika. Iako uživa najveći ugled među fonolozima, prikazat će je se kao opću jezičnu teoriju s naglaskom na njezinu primjenu u fonologiji. Prikazat će se kontekst njezina nastanka s obzirom na tada vodeću generativnu fonološku teoriju i naravnu fonologiju te će se predstaviti njezino polazište i ciljevi. Objasnit će se temeljni pojmovi optimalnosne teorije (ograničenja, obilježenost, vjernost, optimalnost) i pretpostavljeni model gramatike (input, output, generator, evaluator) te će se uvesti u princip jezične analize u njezinu teorijskom okviru, a analiza će se oprimjeriti na dvjema fonološkim pojavama – jednačenju šumnika po zvučnosti u suglasničkome skupu i obezvučivanju na kraju riječi.
  • The aim of this paper is to present Optimality theory (OT), one of the most prominent contemporary linguistic theories developed in the 1990s by two phonologists Alan Prince and Paul Smolensky (1991/1993, 2004). In OT’s view language is in constant search for the optimal surface forms levelling between two types of conflicted demands on well-formedness. Although it is mainly concerned with phonological phenomena, its applicability to other linguistic areas has made it popular among linguists with different linguistic backgrounds and interests (cf. Boersma, Dekkers and Van der Weijer 2000: 1). OT’s typological character maybe had an even more important role for its success (cf. McCarthy 2002: 1). The paper deals with the motivation that stands behind it presenting the context of its development mostly with respect to the mainstream generative approach of the time and the Stampe’s Natural Phonology (1979), pointing out the differences (as well as similarities) between them. OT’s ideas and basic terms (constraints, markedness, faithfulness, optimality) as well as its architecture of grammar (generator, evaluator etc.) are discussed in the paper. The explanation of OT’s tableau with its symbols is given and finally elaborated in the analysis of two phonological phenomena: voicing assimilation in obstruent clusters in Croatian and devoicing of word final obstruents characteristic for the Kajkavian dialect, following Lombardi’s (1996, 1999) set of constraints that account for patterns of voicing assimilation and devoicing phenomena across languages.

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Metadaten
Author:Mia Batinić
URN:urn:nbn:de:hebis:30:3-388086
URL:http://hrcak.srce.hr/128124
ISSN:1331-6745
ISSN:1849-0379
Parent Title (Croatian):Rasprave : časopis Instituta za Hrvatski Jezik i Jezikoslovlje
Publisher:Inst.
Place of publication:Zagreb
Document Type:Article
Language:Croatian
Date of Publication (online):2016/10/17
Year of first Publication:2014
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2016/10/17
Tag:Croatian language; Kajkavian; SPE; devoicing; generative grammar; generative phonology; linguistic theory; markedness; natural phonology; optimality theory; voicing assimilation
SPE; generativna fonologija; generativna gramatika; hrvatski jezik; jednačenje po zvučnosti; kajkavski; naravna fonologija; obezvučivanje; obilježenost; optimalnosna teorija; teorija jezika; teorija optimalnosti
Volume:40
Issue:1
Page Number:34
First Page:1
Last Page:33
Note:
Rights: Papers published in this journal can be used for personal or educational purposes while respecting the rights of authors and publishers.
HeBIS-PPN:401896285
Sammlungen:Linguistik
Licence (German):License LogoDeutsches Urheberrecht