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Subcutaneous and visceral adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells: Commonality and diversity

  • Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) are considered to be a useful tool for regenerative medicine, owing to their capabilities in differentiation, self-renewal, and immunomodulation. These cells have become a focus in the clinical setting due to their abundance and easy isolation. However, ASCs from different depots are not well characterized. Here, we analyzed the functional similarities and differences of subcutaneous and visceral ASCs. Subcutaneous ASCs have an extraordinarily directed mode of motility and a highly dynamic focal adhesion turnover, even though they share similar surface markers, whereas visceral ASCs move in an undirected random pattern with more stable focal adhesions. Visceral ASCs have a higher potential to differentiate into adipogenic and osteogenic cells when compared to subcutaneous ASCs. In line with these observations, visceral ASCs demonstrate a more active sonic hedgehog pathway that is linked to a high expression of cilia/differentiation related genes. Moreover, visceral ASCs secrete higher levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and tumor necrosis factor α relative to subcutaneous ASCs. These findings highlight, that both ASC subpopulations share multiple cellular features, but significantly differ in their functions. The functional diversity of ASCs depends on their origin, cellular context and surrounding microenvironment within adipose tissues. The data provide important insight into the biology of ASCs, which might be useful in choosing the adequate ASC subpopulation for regenerative therapies.

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Author:Andreas RitterORCiD, Alexandra Friemel, Susanne Roth, Nina-Naomi KreisORCiDGND, Samira Catharina HoockGND, Babek Khan Safdar, Kyra FischerGND, Charlotte J. Möllmann, Christine SolbachORCiDGND, Frank LouwenGND, Juping YuanORCiDGND
Pubmed Id:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31640218
Parent Title (English):Cells
Place of publication:Basel
Document Type:Article
Year of Completion:2019
Date of first Publication:2019/10/21
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2020/01/06
Tag:adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells; differentiation; migration; primary cilium; secretion; sonic hedgehog signaling
Issue:10, Art. 1288
Page Number:23
First Page:1
Last Page:23
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Institutes:Medizin / Medizin
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 4.0