Classical mutagenesis

  • Classical genetic analyses require the presence of at least two different alleles per locus. Until the mid 1920's for the different alleles the investigators had to rely on spontaneous mutations. Since then mutagenic agents (mutagens) became available and these discoveries greatly enhanced the power of genetic analyses. Mutation is defined here as a heritable chemical alteration within the gene or the mutation process bringing about the change. Mutant is the individual (cell) containing the mutation. Point mutations are assumed to be free of loss, gain or rearrangement within the nucleotide sequence. Fonvard mutations are changes from the wild type allele (the allele predominant in wild populations) to a new allele, and the reverse process is backmutation. The frequency o/mutation per locus per generation (mutation rate) must be distinguished from mutant frequency, indicating simply the number of mutants in a population. Mutation in the broad sense involves also hereditary changes in chromosome number (polyploidy and aneuploidy) and chromosome structure, visible through the light microscope. The latter types are frequently called chromosomal aberrations. Arabidopsis, without further qualifications, in this context, will refer to Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. in its diploid form (2n = 10). This species has three genomes, the nuclear, plastidic and the mitochondrial. Its nuclear genome (n = 5) is the smallest among higher plants (Leutweiler et al., 1984), containing about 0.7 - 1 x 108 bp, and redundancy is very low (Meyerowitz and Pruitt, 1985). The plastid genome is about the same size as that of the mcYority of higher plants, ca. 150 kb. The size of the mitochondrial genome is ca. 400 kb. Arabidopsis is an excellent tool for genetics and its critical features and known mutants have been reviewed (R&Iei , 1970, 1975a,b; Kranz, 1978; Meyerowitz and Pruitt, 1984; Meyerowitz, 1987, 1989; Estelle and Somerville, 1986; Bowman et al., 1988).

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Author:George P. Redei, Csaba Koncz
Parent Title (German):Methods in Arabidopsis research / ed. by Csaba Koncz u.a.
Publisher:World Scientific
Place of publication:Singapore u.a.
Document Type:Part of a Book
Date of Publication (online):2009/08/12
Year of first Publication:1992
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2009/08/12
First Page:16
Last Page:82
Signatur: S 93/301
Source:in: Methods in Arabidopsis research / ed. by Csaba Koncz u.a., Singapore u.a. : World Scientific, 1992, S. 16-82
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 57 Biowissenschaften; Biologie / 570 Biowissenschaften; Biologie
Sammlungen:Sammlung Biologie / Weitere biologische Literatur (eingeschränkter Zugriff)
Licence (German):License LogoArchivex. zur Lesesaalplatznutzung § 52b UrhG