Mastectomy in female-to-male transgender patients: A single-center 24-year retrospective analysis

  • Background: Mastectomy in male transgender patients is an important (and often the first) step toward physical manhood. At our department, mastectomies in transgender patients have been performed for several decades. Methods: Recorded data were collected and analyzed for all male transgender patients undergoing mastectomy over a period of 24 years at our department. Results: In total, 268 gender-reassigning mastectomies were performed. Several different mastectomy techniques (areolar incision, n=172; sub-mammary incision, n=96) were used according to patients’ habitus and breast features. Corresponding to algorithms presented in the current literature, certain breast qualities were matched with a particular mastectomy technique. Overall, small breasts with marginal ptosis and good skin elasticity allowed small areolar incisions as a method of access for glandular removal. In contrast, large breasts and those with heavy ptosis or poor skin elasticity often required larger incisions for breast amputation. The secondary correction rate (38%) was high for gender reassignment mastectomy, as is also reflected by data in the current literature. Secondary correction frequently involved revision of chest wall recontouring, suggesting inadequate removal of the mammary tissue, as well as scar revision, which may reflect intense traction during wound healing (36%). Secondary corrections were performed more often after using small areolar incision techniques (48%) than after using large sub-mammary incisions (21%). Conclusions: Choosing the suitable mastectomy technique for each patient requires careful individual evaluation of breast features such as size, degree of ptosis, and skin elasticity in order to maximize patient satisfaction and minimize secondary revisions.

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Author:Shafreena KühnORCiDGND, Seirah Keval, Robert Alexander SaderORCiDGND, Lara KüenzlenORCiD, Marcus KiehlmannORCiD, Gabriel Djedovic, Ahmet Bozkurt, Ulrich RiegerORCiDGND
Pubmed Id:
Parent Title (English):Archives of Plastic Surgery
Publisher:The Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons
Place of publication:Seoul
Document Type:Article
Year of Completion:2019
Year of first Publication:2019
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Creating Corporation:Universität Frankfurt, Main
Release Date:2020/07/22
Tag:Gender reassigning surgery; Mastectomy; Transgender
Page Number:8
First Page:433
Last Page:440
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Institutes:Medizin / Medizin
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (English):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung-Nicht kommerziell 4.0