Function and regulation of novel phosphoribosyl-ubiquitination catalyzed by legionella pneumophila effectors

  • Protein ubiquitination is a post-translational modification that typically involves the conjugation of ubiquitin to substrate proteins via a three-enzyme cascade and regulates a wide variety of cellular processes. Recent studies have revealed that SidE family of Legionella effectors such as SdeA catalyzes novel phosphoribosyl-linked ubiquitination (PR-ubiquitination) of serines in host substrate proteins utilizing NAD+, without the need of E2, E3. The catalytic core of SdeA comprises a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase (mART) domain that functions to ADP-ribosylate ubiquitin, and a phosphodiesterase (PDE) domain that processes ADP-ribosylated ubiquitin and transfers the resulting phosphoribosylated ubiquitin to serines of substrates. To date, extensive efforts have been made to study the function of SdeA and mechanism of SdeA mediated PR-ubiquitination, however, the cellular effects of this novel ubiquitination and phosphoribosylation of ubiquitin remained poorly understood. In our study, using biochemical and cell biological approaches, we explored the biological effect of phosphoribosylation of ubiquitin caused by SdeA in cells. We found that phosphoribosylated ubiquitin is not available for conventional ubiquitination, thereby phosphoribosylation of ubiquitin impairs numerous classical ubiquitination related cellular processes including mitophagy, TNF-α signaling and proteasomal degradation. The precise temporal regulation of the functions of bacterial effectors during Legionella infection by other effectors with antagonizing activities has been well studied so far. Not surprisingly, PR-ubiquitination catalyzed by SidE family effecters is tightly controlled as well, it has been long known that effector SidJ counteracts the toxicity of SdeA to yeast cells. Interestingly, in an experiment for verifying the activity of SidJ, we found that Legionella lysate lacking SidJ was still able to remove ubiquitin from PR-ubiquitinated substrates. Using biochemical approach we identified DupA and DupB, two Legionella bacterial effectors that specifically reverse the novel serine PR-ubiquitination catalyzed by SdeA. We found that DupA and DupB possess a highly homologous PDE domain that removes ubiquitin from PR-ubiquitinated substrates by cleaving the phosphodiester bond between the phosphoribosylated-ubiquitin and serines of substrates. Catalytically deficient mutant DupA H67A strongly binds to PR-ubiquitinated proteins but not capable of cleaving PR-ubiquitin, using it as a trapping bait we identified over 180 substrates of PR-ubiquitination, including a number of ER and Golgi proteins. In particular, we found that exogenously expressed SdeA localizes to the Golgi apparatus via its C-terminal region and disrupts the Golgi. We validated the identified potential substrates of SidE effectors and found that SdeA modifies Golgi tethering proteins GRASP55 and GRASP65. Using mass spectrometry analyses we identified four serine targets (S3, S408, S409, S449) of GRASP55 PR-ubiquitinated by SdeA in vitro. Ubiquitination of GRASP55 serine mutant in cells co-expressing SdeA or infected with Legionella was markedly decreased, compared with that of the wild-type GRASP55. In addition, with co-immunoprecipitation analyses we found that SdeA-catalyzed ubiquitination regulates the function of GRASP55. PR-ubiquitinated GRASP55 exhibited reduced self-interaction compared to unmodified GRASP55, expression of GRASP55 serine mutant in cells in part rescued Golgi damage caused by SdeA. Furthermore, our study reveals that Golgi structure disruption caused by SdeA does not result in the recruitment of Golgi membranes to the Legionella-containing vacuoles. Instead, it affects cellular secretory pathway including cytokine secretion in cells. Taken all together, this work expands the understanding of this unconventional PR-ubiquitination catalyzed by Legionella effectors and sheds light on the functions of PR-ubiquitination by which Legionella regulates the Golgi function and secretion pathway during bacterial infection.

Download full text files

Export metadata

Author:Yaobin Liu
Place of publication:Frankfurt am Main
Referee:Volker DötschORCiDGND, Ivan ĐikićORCiDGND
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date of Publication (online):2021/01/12
Year of first Publication:2021
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Granting Institution:Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität
Date of final exam:2021/01/11
Release Date:2021/01/21
Page Number:160
Institutes:Biochemie, Chemie und Pharmazie
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 57 Biowissenschaften; Biologie / 570 Biowissenschaften; Biologie
6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (German):License LogoDeutsches Urheberrecht