A tale of usurpation and subversion: SUMO-dependent integrity of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies at the crossroad of infection and immunity

  • Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) are multi-protein assemblies representing distinct sub-nuclear structures. As phase-separated molecular condensates, PML NBs exhibit liquid droplet-like consistency. A key organizer of the assembly and dynamics of PML NBs is the ubiquitin-like SUMO modification system. SUMO is covalently attached to PML and other core components of PML NBs thereby exhibiting a glue-like function by providing multivalent interactions with proteins containing SUMO interacting motifs (SIMs). PML NBs serve as the catalytic center for nuclear SUMOylation and SUMO-SIM interactions are essential for protein assembly within these structures. Importantly, however, formation of SUMO chains on PML and other PML NB-associated proteins triggers ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation which coincide with disruption of these nuclear condensates. To date, a plethora of nuclear activities such as transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, apoptosis, senescence, cell cycle control, DNA damage response, and DNA replication have been associated with PML NBs. Not surprisingly, therefore, SUMO-dependent PML NB integrity has been implicated in regulating many physiological processes including tumor suppression, metabolism, drug-resistance, development, cellular stemness, and anti-pathogen immune response. The interplay between PML NBs and viral infection is multifaceted. As a part of the cellular antiviral defense strategy, PML NB components are crucial restriction factors for many viruses and a mutual positive correlation has been found to exist between PML NBs and the interferon response. Viruses, in turn, have developed counterstrategies for disarming PML NB associated immune defense measures. On the other end of the spectrum, certain viruses are known to usurp specific PML NB components for successful replication and disruption of these sub-nuclear foci has recently been linked to the stimulation rather than curtailment of antiviral gene repertoire. Importantly, the ability of invading virions to manipulate the host SUMO modification machinery is essential for this interplay between PML NB integrity and viruses. Moreover, compelling evidence is emerging in favor of bacterial pathogens to negotiate with the SUMO system thereby modulating PML NB-directed intrinsic and innate immunity. In the current context, we will present an updated account of the dynamic intricacies between cellular PML NBs as the nuclear SUMO modification hotspots and immune regulatory mechanisms in response to viral and bacterial pathogens.

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Author:Upayan Patra, Stefan Müller
Parent Title (English):Frontiers in cell and developmental biology
Publisher:Frontiers Media
Place of publication:Lausanne
Document Type:Article
Date of Publication (online):2021/08/27
Date of first Publication:2021/08/27
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2021/09/29
Tag:bacteria; intrinsic and innate immune response; promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies; small ubiquitin-related modifier; viruses
Issue:art. 696234
Page Number:31
First Page:1
Last Page:31
This work was funded by the Cluster project ENABLE funded by the State of Hesse.
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 4.0