Hidden treasures: macrophage long non-coding RNAs in lung cancer progression

  • Simple Summary: Cancer immunotherapy mainly targets immune system components, such as immune-suppressive networks generated by cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Programmed cell death ligand 1, which is a secretory immune-suppressive factor, is released by tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). The TME also disrupts production of tumor-specific T cells and generates immunosuppressive leukocytes, regulatory T cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are effective in various cancers but only in a subset of patients. Non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs), are dysregulated in cancer through transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and epigenetic changes and have significant roles in cancer initiation and progression, which depends on deregulation of lncRNA expression. TAM function can be influenced by lncRNAs in various ways. However, our understanding of lncRNA dysregulation and function in cancer remains in the early stage. Abstract: Ever since RNA sequencing of whole genomes and transcriptomes became available, numerous RNA transcripts without having the classic function of encoding proteins have been discovered. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with a length greater than 200 nucleotides were considered as “junk” in the beginning, but it has increasingly become clear that lncRNAs have crucial roles in regulating a variety of cellular mechanisms and are often deregulated in several diseases, such as cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and has a survival rate of less than 10%. Immune cells infiltrating the tumor microenvironment (TME) have been shown to have a great effect on tumor development with macrophages being the major cell type within the TME. Macrophages can inherit an inflammatory M1 or an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Tumor-associated macrophages, which are predominantly polarized to M2, favor tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In this review, we aimed to describe the complex roles and functions of lncRNAs in macrophages and their influence on lung cancer development and progression through the TME.

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Author:Annika KargerGND, Rajender NandigamaORCiDGND, Albrecht StenzingerORCiDGND, Friedrich GrimmingerORCiDGND, Soni PullamsettiORCiDGND, Werner SeegerORCiDGND, Rajkumar SavaiORCiDGND
Parent Title (English):Cancers
Place of publication:Basel
Document Type:Article
Date of Publication (online):2021/08/17
Date of first Publication:2021/08/17
Publishing Institution:Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
Release Date:2022/07/04
Tag:TAM; lncRNA; lung cancer; macrophage; tumor microenvironment
Issue:16, art. 4127
Article Number:4127
Page Number:20
First Page:1
Last Page:20
This work was supported by the Max Planck Society, Cardio-Pulmonary Institute (CPI), the German Center for Lung Research (DZL) and DFG, SFB 1213 (Project A01, A05 to SSP and Project A10* to RS), and European Research Council (ERC) Consolidator Grant (#866051 to SSP). grant numbers.
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 61 Medizin und Gesundheit / 610 Medizin und Gesundheit
Licence (German):License LogoCreative Commons - Namensnennung 4.0